ABNS (American Board of Neurological Surgery) exams


Vignettes (clinical case scenarios) >>


“Last Minute” Read on the day of oral exam >>

incl. how to approach cases, trials in neurosurgery, complications in neurosurgery, pregnancy, drugs, radiology, neuroanatomy, neurological mimickers


Condensed review for written and oral exams:

Anatomy, Histology, Physiology >>

Clinical Topics (heart, lungs, skin, anesthesia, brain edema, ICP, brain herniation, CSF leak, consciousness, neurological exam, diagnostics, brain biopsy, craniotomy, intraoperative monitoring, memory, dementia, psychiatry, neurology, speech, sleep, phacomatoses, hydrocephalus, demyelinations, sarcoidosis) >>

Epilepsy >>

Functional neurosurgery, DBS >>

Infections >>

Ophthalmology >>

Otology >>


cranial >>

spine, nerves >>


anatomy, examination >>

diagnostics, disorders >>

Pain >>

Pediatrics >>

Radiotherapy >>


degenerative, non-oncological >>

trauma >>

TBI >>


aneurysms, SAH >>

other >>



A. Neuroscience Basics (anatomy, histology, physiology, development)

Skull >>

Spine >>

Cerebrum >>

Basal Motor Nuclei >>

Diencephalon >>

Brain Stem >>

Cerebellum >>

Cranial Nerves >>

Spinal Cord >>

Peripheral Nervous System >>

Visceral (Autonomic) Nervous System >>


brain >>

spinal cord >>


ABNS (American Board of Neurological Surgery) exams:

Quick Read on the morning of oral exam >>

Condensed review for written and oral exams >>



general scheme of nervous system: A1-A2 >>

histologic methods in neuroscience: A11 (1) >>

tracing nerve tracts: A11 (2) >>


neuron: A3 >>

incl. neurotrophins - NGF (nerve growth factor), BDNF (brain-derived growth factor), NT-3 (neurotrophin-3), NT-4/5 (neurotrophin-4/5).


nerve fibers: A3 >>

incl. nerve fiber types & properties, excitation & conduction (resting potential, action potential, electrotonic potentials or local response).


synapsis: A4a >>

incl. ephapse, semiphorins, neurophilins, postsynaptic electrical events (incl. EPSP, IPSP, action potential generation), inhibition & facilitation at synapsis, synaptic plasticity & learning (incl. long-term potentiation/depression), neuromodulation, receptors.

neuromuscular junction (motor endplate): 1113-1115, 1119 (6) (musculoskeletal)


neurochemistry, neurotransmitters, receptors: A4b >>

incl. catecholamines (norepinephrine, dopamine), serotonin, histamine, acetylcholine, amino acids (glutamate, aspartate, GABA, glycine), neuropeptides (tachykinins [substance P, neurokinins], fosaprepitant (Emend), opioids* [endorphins, dynorphins, enkephalins]), cannabinoids, gases (NO, CO).

*also see S21 >>, 3905 >> (intensive care)

sleep neurochemistry: D27 >>

arousal neurochemistry: S30 >>

autonomic neurochemistry (incl. acetylcholine, norepinephrine) → see visceral (autonomic) nervous system >>


pathologic reactions of neurons, neuron doctrine of Santiago Ramón Y Cajal: A5 >>

incl. wallerian degeneration, chromatolysis, denervation hypersensitivity, neuronal inclusions, trans-synaptic neuronal death, direct neuronal death, neuron regeneration.


supporting cells (glia): A6 (1-2) >>, A6 >>

incl. Rosenthal fibers

gemistocytic astrocyte (gemistocyte): Onc10 >>

myelin, myelination: A7 (1-4) >>

incl. demyelination

myelination timetable: A7 (5) >>


meninges: A40 >>, A40 (1-4) >>

Liliequist membrane: A40 >>

development → see general development >>


blood-brain barrier (BBB), blood-CSF barrier: A8 >>


CSF (cerebrospinal fluid), choroid plexus, arachnoid villi: D40 >>

ventricular system → see cerebrum >>


ICP (intracranial pressure), Monroe-Kellie hypothesis: S50 >>


bioenergetics, metabolism of CNS: A211 >>, 844 (biochemistry)



sensory receptors: A17 >>

incl. impulse initiation (receptor potentials), information coding, sensory unit, sensory modalities, sense organs, skin receptors.

afferent tracts: A45 (2) >>

touch: A17 >>, A49 (2) >>

proprioreception: A49 (2) >>

vibration: A17 >>

temperature: A17 >>

itch, tickle: A17 >>

taste → see visceral (autonomic) nervous system >>

smell → see rhinencephalon >>

vision → see “Eye. Ophthalmology” >>

hearing → see “Ear. Otology” >>

pain, sensory disorders → see S. Signs, Symptoms, Syndromes” >>


motor systems: A101 (5-6) >>, A102 (1-2) >>, A46 (4-6) >>, A89 >>, A57 (6) >>

motor unit: A46 (5a) >>

abnormal motor unit: A46 (5a) >>

motor cortex: A150 >>, A150 (1-4) >>

extrapyramidal system: A101 (6) >>

reflex: A18 >>

incl. muscle stretch reflex, withdrawal reflex, muscular spindles, reciprocal inhibition, inverse stretch reflex, Golgi tendon organ, muscle tone, lengthening reaction, clonus.

muscle coordination: A60 >>

postural control: A61 >>

incl. tonic labyrinthine reflexes, tonic neck reflexes, spinal transection (pontomedullary dysfunction, spinal shock), decerebration (diencephalic-midbrain dysfunction, decerebrate rigidity), decortication (decorticate rigidity), midbrain animal.

lesions of upper and lower motoneurons: A50 (3-4) >>


sleep-wake cycle: A57 (5) >>, D27 >>



General Development


neurons & glia: A13 (1-4) >>, A6 >>

brain / cerebrum: A13 (1-4) >>, A133 >>

cortex: A144 (1) >>

diencephalon: A111 (1-2) >>

brain stem: A55 (1-2) >>

cerebellum: A86 (2) >>

human brain organoids: A5a >>

spinal cord: A13 (5) >>, A13 (5a) >>

spinal nerves: A13 (6-8) >>

neural crest: A13 (5-9) >>

somites: A13 (8-9) >>

meninges: A13 (6) >>

skull: Dev9 >>


nervous system changes with aging: 4809 >>

incl. leukoaraiosis (s. white matter hyperintensities)




neurocranium: 1066-1073 >>

            incl.     scalp (layers, blood supply, innervation): 1066-1067

            sutures: 1068

            newborn skull, fontanelles: 1068, 1085

            craniometry, topographic points: 1069 >>

            calvaria: 1069-1070

                        operative topography: 1070

temporal bone, internal auditory canal, anatomy of CP angle: Onc62 >>

            basis externa: 1071-1072

            basis interna: 1073

cranial foramina and canals (with radiologic aspects): D47 >>

facial cranium: 1074-1077 >>

            incl.     development: 1074

            bones: 1075-1077

face, teeth: 1077-1083 >>     

incl.     muscles: 1080-1081

                        of mastication: 1082

            temporomandibular joint: 1082

            innervation: 1083

            X-ray: 1083

            teeth: 1077-1079 (4)

                        anesthesia: 1078

                        development: 1079

                        histology: 1079 (1-2)

                        supporting tissues (periodontium): 1079 (3-4)




1013-1018 >>

            incl.     biomechanics: 1018

            innervation: 1018




GROSS anatomy: A130-132 >>

incl. topography, ventricular system

insula: A134 >>

Sylvian fissure: A134 >>



arteries: A205 >>

development (embryogenesis) of blood supply: A201 >>

syndromes of arterial territories: Vas3 >>

veins, dural venous sinuses: A207 >>

cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), pressure autoregulation: A211 >>

blood supply to choroidal plexuses: A205 >>

glymphatic system: A208 >>



general: A135 (2-7) >>, CN1 >>

olfactory physiology: A135 (8a-b) >>


Limbic System

general: A135 (8-10)-A138 (5-6) >>, A139 >>

limbic cortex histology: A145 (2) >>

substantia innominata, Nucleus basalis of Meynert: A135 (9) >>, A136 >>

amygdala: A137 >>, A137 (1-2) >>

hippocampus: A138 >>, A138 (1-4) >>

Papez circuit: A138 (4a) >>

emotions: A138 (4-6) >>, A139 >>

Klüver-Bucy syndrome: A137 >>, A138 (5) >>

sexual behavior, pheromones, maternal behavior: A139 >>

fear, rage, placidity: A139 >>

self-stimulation & addiction: A139 >>


White Matter

general: A143 (1) >>, A143 >>

projection fibers: A143 (1) >>

association fibers: A143 (2-3) >>

cingulotomy: A143 (3) >>

hemispheric asymmetry: A157 (1-3) >>

commissures: A143 (3-5) >>

commissurotomy (split-brain): A157 (1-3) >>



general: A144 (2) >>

types: A144 (1-2) >>

development → see general development >>

layers: A144 (3-4, 6) >>

neurons: A144 (5-6) >>

connections: A144 (7) >>

cytoarchitecture: A145 (1-2) >>

functional areas: A148-A149 >>

       motor cortex: A150 (1-4) >>

supplementary motor cortex: A101 (6) >>

       sensory cortex: A155 (1-3) >>

       association cortex: A156 (1-5) >>

agnosia: A156 (1-2) >>

Balint syndrome: Eye62 >>, Eye64 >>, A156 (2) >>

apraxia / dyspraxia: S8 >>

Gerstmann’s syndrome, left hemineglect: A156 (5) >>

language, speech → see S. Signs, Symptoms, Syndromes” >>

memory & learning → see S. Signs, Symptoms, Syndromes” >>

lesions of specific cerebral lobes (frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital): Onc1 >>

frontal lobe syndrome: A156 (5) >>, Onc1 >>, Psy5 >>



basal motor nuclei

anatomy (topography, nomenclature, connections, striatum, pallidum, red nucleus, substantia nigra, nucleus accumbens, fields of Forel s. H fields): A100-102 >>

subthalamic nucleus: A103 >>, A110 (1) >>

nucleus accumbens: A100-102 >>, A103 >>

physiology: A103 >>

blood supply: A205 >>

lesions (incl. athetosis, dystonia, tardive dyskinesia, ballismus, chorea, tremor): Mov1 >>




general: A110 >>, A110-113 >>

development → see general development >>


thalamus: A110 >>, A110-113 >>

incl. topography, nuclei, connections, internal capsule

blood supply: A205 >>

lesions: A114 >>


hypothalamus: A115-119 >>

incl. topography, nuclei, connections, arching systems of cerebrum (stria terminalis, stria medullaris, fornix, striae lancisi), circumventricular organs

hypophysis: 2709-2714 (endocrine system)

as neuroendocrine organ: 2715-2716 (endocrine system)

blood supply: A205 >>

functions and disorders: A119 (1-2) >>, A120 (1-4) >>, A121 >>, Veg3 >>

            thermoregulation → see vegetative (autonomic) nervous system >>

            motivated behavior: A120 >>


epithalamus: A110 >>, A110-113 >>

incl. pineal gland / epiphysis cerebri): (see also 2717-2718 (endocrine system)), habenula,

stria medullaris



subthalamic nucleus: A103 >>

fields of Forel (s. H fields): A110 >>

incl. thalamic fasciculus, ansa lenticularis, lenticular fasciculus



brain stem

anatomy: A55 (1-8) >>

incl. composition, external anatomy, medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain, lemniscus medialis, corticobulbar / corticonuclear tract (also see A55 (8) >>)

blood supply: A205 >>

development → see general development >>

reticular formation, ARAS, visceral control: A57 (1-6) >>

locus ceruleus (s. locus cinereus): A91 (1) >>

brainstem lesions: A59 >>

incl. medial syndromes of medulla & pons (incl. Foville syndrome, Millard-Gubler syndrome);

lateral syndromes of medulla & pons (incl. lateral medullary [Wallenberg] syndrome, lateral superior / inferior pontine syndromes); also see Eye64 >>

bulbar palsy, pseudobulbar palsy, locked-in syndrome (pseudocoma) →

→ see “Mov. Movement Disorders” >>

midbrain syndromes (incl. dorsal midbrain [s. collicular, Parinaud] syndrome, ventral midbrain [s. Weber] syndrome, central [s. tegmental] midbrain syndrome); also see Eye64 >>

Claude syndrome, Benedikt syndrome, Nothnagel syndrome: Eye64 >>

decerebration: A61 >>




anatomy: A85-89 >>

incl. topography, nuclei, vestibulocerebellum, spinocerebellum, cerebrocerebellum

cortex: A91 >>

peduncles: A93 >>

development → see general development >>

blood supply: A205 >>, A207 >>

lesions: caudal vermis syndrome, rostral vermis syndrome, cerebellar hemisphere syndrome:

Mov5 >>

cerebellar mutism (posterior fossa syndrome): Onc18 >>



cranial nerves

general: A65 (1-4) >>

CN1 (nn. olfactorii): A135 (1-2) >>; also see rhinencephalon >>

CN2 (n. opticus) → see “Eye. Ophthalmology” >>

CN3 (n. oculomotorius) → see “Eye. Ophthalmology” >>

CN4 (n. trochlearis) → see “Eye. Ophthalmology” >>

CN5 (n. trigeminus): A70 (1-6) >>, A70 >>

CN6 (n. abducens) → see “Eye. Ophthalmology” >>

CN7 (n. facialis): A72 (1-4) >>, A73 >>, Onc62 >>

CN8 (n. vestibulocochlearis) → see “Ear. Otology” >>

CN9 (n. glossopharyngeus): A74 (1-3) >>

CN10 (n. vagus): A75 (1-4) >>

CN11 (n. accessorius): A76 (1-2) >>

CN12 (n. hypoglossus): A77 (1-2) >>

lesions of cranial nerves → see “CN. Cranial Neuropathies” >>



spinal cord

n. spinalis → see peripheral nervous system >>

topography, grey matter, white matter: A45-50 >>

            incl. ascending pathways: dorsal funiculus, tr. spinothalamicus, tr. spinocerebellaris

incl. descending pathways: tr. pyramidalis (s. corticospinalis), tr. rubrospinalis, tr. vestibulospinalis

blood supply: A203 >>

            development of blood supply: A201 >>

clinico-anatomic syndromes of spinal cord: Spin1 >>, A50 (4-6) >>

incl. motoneuron disease, sensory neuron disease, combined funicular lesions, syringomyelia, spinal cord transections.



peripheral nervous system

cranial nerves → see cranial nerves >>

development → see general development (spinal nerves) >>

lesions → see “PN. Peripheral Neuropathies” >>

anatomy, histology, physiology (incl. nerve fiber, fascicle, endoneurium, perineurium, epineurium, axoplasmic transport): A14 >>, A15 >>

dermatomes: A19 >>

face: 1083 (musculoskeletal system)

scalp: 1067 (musculoskeletal system)

ear: Ear02

theory of nerve components: A13 (8) >>, A65 (3) >>

n. spinalis: A45 (1-2) >>, A24 (2) >>

thoracic cage (nn. intercostales): A24 (1-2) >>

abdominal wall, inguinal region: A24 (2) >>

cervical plexus, ansa cervicalis: A26 (1-2) >>

incl. n. phrenicus / phrenic nerve

brachial plexus:

general organization: A20 (1-6) >>

nerves (of upper extremity): A20 (7-14) >>

incl. n. musculocutaneous / musculocutaneous nerve, n. axillaris / axillary nerve, n. radialis / radial nerve, n. ulnaris / ulnar nerve, n. medianus / median nerve, hand innervation

Riche-Cannieu anastomosis: Op450 >>

Martin-Gruber anastomosis: Op450 >>

lumbosacral plexus: A22 >> A23 >>

incl. nerves (of lower extremity): n. ischiadicus / sciatic nerve, n. tibialis / tibial nerve, n. peroneus / peroneal nerve



visceral (autonomic) nervous system

general: A30-33 >>

incl. referred pain


visceral function control: A57 (1-6) >>

breathing: 2115 (2-10) (respiratory system)

micturition: 2430-2432 (genitourinary system)

neurogenic bladder: 2590a >>

urinary incontinence: 2590 >>

defecation: 1821 (4) (digestive system)

vomiting: 1846 (1-5), 1814 (7) (digestive system)

central mechanisms, oncological aspects: 1715 (1-3) (oncology)

taste: A79 >>, 1826 (2-4) (digestive system)

incl. taste disorders (ageusia, hypogeusia, dysgeusia).

hunger, food intake: A124 >>

thirst, drinking: A124 >>

body temperature, thermoregulation: A124 >>

incl. fever, fever of unknown origin, poikilothermy, hereditary periodic fever syndromes (familial Mediterranean fever, hyper-IgD syndrome, TNF receptor–associated periodic syndrome, s. familial Hibernian fever).

heat disorders (hypothermia, hyperthermia, etc): 3909 (intensive care)


autonomic neurochemistry: A34 >>

incl. acetylcholine, norepinephrine, cholinoreceptors, adrenoreceptors.

autonomic pharmacology: A35 >>

incl. organophosphates, carbamates

direct acting cholinergic agonists (acetylcholine, bethanechol, carbachol, pilocarpine, methacholine, cevimeline)

anticholinesterases (physostigmine, neostigmine, pyridostigmine, edrophonium, tacrine, donepezil, galanthamine, rivastigmine, echothiophate, isoflurophate [DFP], demecarium)

acetylcholinesterase reactivation (pralidoxime)

anticholinergics (atropine, scopolamine [hyoscine], ipratropium, tiotropium, pirenzepine)

ganglionic blockers (trimethaphan, mecamylamine, nicotine, hexamethonium)

direct-acting adrenergic agonists (epinephrine [adrenaline], norepinephrine [levarterenol], isoproterenol, dopamine, dobutamine, phenylephrine, methoxamine, midodrine, metaproterenol, albuterol, terbutaline, pirbuterol, bitolterol, ritodrine, salbutamol, salmeterol, clonidine, α-methyldopa, guanabenz, guanfacine)

indirect-acting adrenergic agonists (amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, methamphetamine METH, Ice), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy), tyramine, cocaine, methylphenidate, dexmethylphenidate)

mixed action adrenergic agonists (ephedrine, metaraminol, hydroxyamphetamine, methamphetamine, mephentermine)

β-adrenergic blockers (propranolol, timolol, nadolol, pindolol, penbutolol, carteolol, oxprenolol, sotalol, atenolol, metoprolol, acebutolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, esmolol, nebivolol)

α-adrenergic blockers (prazosin, terazosin, doxazosin, phenoxybenzamine, phentolamine)

α and β adrenergic blockers (labetalol, carvedilol)

other antiadrenergics (reserpine, guanethidine, guanadrel, fenoldopam mesylate, bretylium)

ergot alkaloids (ergotamine, dihydroergotamine, methysergide, ergonovine, methylergonovine)


sympathic NS: A32 (1) >>

sympathetic chain: A31 (2) >>

Horner syndrome: A32 (2) >>, Eye64 >>

            sudomotor, pupillomotor control: A57 (6) >>

vasomotor: A57 (6) >>, 1322-1325 (cardiovascular system)


parasympathetic NS: A32 (2) >>, A65 (4) >>

also see cranial nerves: III, VII, IX, X >>


enteric NS: see 1801 (7) (digestive system)




CN. Cranial Neuropathies

food supplements for reversing neuropathies: PN1 >>

multiple cranial nerve lesions: CN0 >>

incl. Foix, Tolosa-Hunt, Jacod, Gradenigo, Vernet, Marcus Gunn, Collet-Sicard, Villaret, Tapia, Jackson, Schmidt, Wallenberg, Weber, Claude, Benedikt, Nothnagel syndromes.

CN1 (nn. olfactorii): CN1 >>, A135 (7-8) >>

incl. smell disorders (hyposmia, anosmia, parosmia, dysosmia, cacosmia, hyperosmia).

CN2 (n. opticus) → see “Eye. Ophthalmology” >>

CN3 (n. oculomotorius) → see “Eye. Ophthalmology” >>

CN4 (n. trochlearis) → see “Eye. Ophthalmology” >>

CN5 (n. trigeminus): CN5 >>, Eye64 >>

incl. trigeminal neuralgia [tic douloureux], Gradenigo syndrome, Raeder paratrigeminal syndrome, onion-skin pattern face anesthesia;

schwannoma: Onc62 >>

CN5 surgery: microvascular decompression (s. Jannetta procedure), percutaneous trigeminal (retrogasserian) rhizotomy.

CN6 (n. abducens) → see “Eye. Ophthalmology” >>

CN7 (n. facialis): CN7 >>

incl. facial palsy - Bell's palsy, Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, Möbius syndrome, Heerfordt syndrome [uveoparotid fever], cerebellopontine angle syndrome, facial canal syndrome, stylomastoid foramen syndrome, Ramsay-Hunt syndrome [geniculate zoster, herpes zoster oticus], facial overactivation syndromes (hemifacial spasm, myokymia), facial nerve trauma*, re-innervation syndromes - postparalytic synkinesis, crocodile tears, gustatory sweating (Frey syndrome).

*facial nerve birth trauma: Ped9 >>

schwannoma: Onc62 >>

CN8 (n. vestibulocochlearis) → see “Ear. Otology” >>

schwannoma: Onc62 >>

CN9 (n. glossopharyngeus): A74 (2) >>

glossopharyngeal neuralgia (s. tic douloureux of CN9): CN9-10 >>

CN10 (n. vagus): A75 (2) >>

lesions of laryngeal nerves: 2168 (2), 2170 (respiratory system)

CN11 (n. accessorius): CN11-12 >>

CN12 (n. hypoglossus): CN11-12 >>

schwannoma: Onc62 >>




D. Diagnostics

Bedside” examination >>

Laboratory – Instrumental examination >>


ABNS (American Board of Neurological Surgery) exams:

Condensed review for written and oral exams >>


“Bedside” examination

neurologic examination: D1 >>

incl. nuchal rigidity, Kernig sign (bent-knee leg raising), Brudzinski signs, environmental dependence (imitation behavior, utilization behavior), stereognosis, graphesthesia s. number identification, topesthesia s. point localization, baresthesia, two-point discrimination, extinction, Lhermitte sign, Spurling test, Axial loading test, dermatomes, myotomes, cutaneous nerve distributions, detection of sensory / motor malingering, fasciculations, dyskinesias, synkinesia, Lord Beevor sign, Barré sign, pronator drift, Jolly test, Jendrassik maneuver, Babinski response, reflexes (abdominal, plantar, cremaster, anal wink, bulbocavernosus, Starling, Trömner, Bechterew-Mendel, Hoffmann, Rossolimo, Puusepp, Oppenheim, Chaddock, Schäffer, Gordon, Bing, Strunsky, Throckmorton, Williams, Brissaud, Marie-Foix-Bechterew, corneal blink, sneeze, jaw-jerk, gag, oculocardiac Aschner, carotid sinus), frontal release signs, s. primitive reflexes (sucking, snout, visual suck, rooting, palmomental, grasp, glabellar), coordination tests (finger-nose, finger-chase test, point-to-point, past-pointing, heel-to-shin, heel-to-toe), dysdiadochokinesia, dysmetria (Stewart-Holmes sign s. rebound phenomenon, signe de la prehension), Romberg test, Bell phenomenon, Chvostek sign, Schirmer test, orthostatic vital signs, orthostatic hypotension, Tinel's sign, sciatica, maneuvers (Néri, Sicard, Lasègue s. straight-leg raising, crossed Lasègue Bechterew, Freiberg, Pace, Beatty, Mirkin, reverse straight-leg raising Wassermann), Froment prehensile thumb sign (signe du journal), "claw hand" (main en griffe), "hand of benediction".

mental status examination, neuropsychological testing: D1 >>, D2 >>, D3 >>, D10 >>, D12 >>

pediatric neurologic examination: D5 >>

otologic examination: D1ear >>

ophthalmologic examination: D1eye >>



Laboratory – Instrumental examination

Principles of instrumental neurodiagnosis: D19 >>



electroencephalography (EEG): D27 >>

evoked potentials (somatosensory, trigeminal, motor, cognitive), magnetic stimulation, intraoperative monitoring (incl. Stagnara wake up test): D25 >>

brain stem auditory evoked response (baer): Ear30 >>

visual evoked potentials (vep): Eye60 >>

olfactory evoked potentials: CN1 >>

magnetoencephalography (MEG): D29 >>

nerve conduction studies (sensory, motor, F response, H reflex, blink reflex, repetitive nerve stimulation): D22 >>

electromyography (EMG): D20 >>

nascent polyphasic potentials: PN7 >>


Tissue examination:

brain biopsy – see Operative Techniques” >>

nerve biopsy – see Operative Techniques” >>

muscle biopsy, serum & urinary markers of muscle disease: D30 >>


CSF (cerebrospinal fluid): D40 >>

incl. xanthochromia, bloody CSF, pleocytosis, Froin syndrome (s. loculation syndrome), hypoglycorrhachia, CSF in various disorders.

lumbar puncture: Op3 >>


Neuroimaging: D45 >>

incl. intravenous contrast enhancement principles, pediatric neuroimaging, fetal neuroimaging, neonatal neuroimaging.

plain radiography (skull, facial): D47 >>

incl. Schüller, Stenvers view

spinal X-ray: D70 >>

pneumoencephalog­raphy: D55 >>

CT: D49 >>

spinal CT: D70 >>

CT cisternography: S64 >>, D49 >>

MRI: D51 >>

incl. hemorrhage (blood, clot) MRI signal, echo planar imaging (EPI), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging, fast spin echo (FSE) MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI*, perfusion-weighted MRI, ADC maps*.

*also see Vas3 >>

Functional MRI (fMRI), resting state fMRI: see below >>

Tractography (incl. DTI): D80 >>

Medtronic StealthViz: D99 >>

MRS (MR spectroscopy): D53 >>

MRS in tumors: Onc1 >>

MRS in stroke: Vas3 >>

PET: D53 >>


ultrasound of infant brain: D57 >>

incl. A mode (amplification), static B mode (brightness), TM mode (time-motion), real-time ultrasound.

ultrasound of infant spine: D70 >>

Doppler: D62 >>

in carotid disease: Vas7 >>


Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS): D100 >>


Vascular examination: D60 >>

catheter angiography: D61 >>

incl. conventional angiography, digital subtraction angiography (DSA), biplane angiography, 3D rotational angiography, spinal angiography, ICG (indocyanine green) angiography

Doppler: D62 >>

incl. continuous wave Doppler, duplex Doppler, Gosling index, Lindegaard index.

in carotid disease: Vas7 >>

CT angiography (CTA), CT venography (CTV), perfusion CT (pCT): D64 >>

magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), magnetic resonance venography (MRV): D64 >>

regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) examination: D66 >>

incl. 133Xe rCBF, stable Xe-CT, perfusion CT, single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), functional MRI (fMRI), resting state fMRI, blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) contrast technique.

diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI), perfusion-weighted MRI (PW-MRI), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps: Vas3 >>

oculopneumoplethysmography (OPG): Vas7 >>

carotid occlusion studies: D68 >>


Spinal imaging: D70 >>

incl. X-ray, CT, MRI, myelography, discography, neonatal ultrasound, conjoined root sleeves.

spinal angiography: D61 >>




Dem. Demyelinating disorders


ABNS (American Board of Neurological Surgery) exams:

Condensed review for written and oral exams >>


PNS demyelination: Dem1 >>

incl. Guillain-Barré syndrome (gbs), acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (aidp), Miller-Fisher syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (cidp), multifocal motor neuropathy (s. mnmcb, motor neuropathy with multiple conduction blocks), congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy.


CNS demyelination: Dem3 >>

incl. incidental white-matter hyperintensities.

Multiple Sclerosis: Dem5 >>

incl. Marburg variant (acute MS), Kurtzke expanded disability status scale (edss), interferon-β 1b (Betaseron), interferon-β 1a (Avonex, Rebif), glatiramer acetate (s. copolymer 1, Copaxone), natalizumab (Tysabri), cladribine (Leustatin), dalfampridine (Ampyra), teriflunomide (Aubagio), dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera)

MS-related disorders: Dem7 >>

incl. neuromyelitis optica (Devic's disease), concentric sclerosis (Baló disease, encephalitis periaxialis concentrica), Schilder disease (s. encephalitis periaxialis diffusa, diffuse sclerosis), experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE).

Cns complications of viral infections and vaccines: Dem9 >>

incl. acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (adem), acute necrotizing hemorrhagic encephalomyelitis (anhem, s. acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis of Weston Hurst).

Leukodystrophies: Dem11 >>

incl. adrenoleukodystrophy, adrenomyeloneuropathy, neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (Ulrich's disease), metachromatic leukodystrophies (s. sulfatide lipidoses), globoid cell leukodystrophy (s. Krabbe disease), Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (connatal Seitelberger disease, adult Löwenberg-Hull disease), Canavan disease (s. spongy degeneration of nervous system), Cockayne syndrome, Alexander disease.

Metabolic Demyelinations: Dem13 >>

incl. demyelination of corpus callosum (Marchiafava-Bignami disease), central pontine myelinolysis.




Dev. Developmental disorders


ABNS (American Board of Neurological Surgery) exams:

Condensed review for written and oral exams >>



Congenital CNS Anomalies (GENERAL): Dev1 >>

incl. iniencephaly.


Brain Anomalies: Dev7 >>

segmentation, cleavage, midline defects: Dev7 >>

incl. holoprosencephaly, septo-optic dysplasia, agenesis of corpus callosum, arrhinencephaly, cyclopia, ethmocephaly, cebocephaly, Neu-Laxova syndrome, Shapiro syndrome, Kallmann's syndrome, colpocephaly


neuronal migration and cortical formation disorders: Dev7 >>

incl. lissencephaly (s. agyria), pachygyria (s. macrogyria), Miller-Dieker syndrome, polymicrogyria, neuronal heterotopia, focal cortical dysplasias, ulegyria, schizencephaly, porencephaly, hydranencephaly, megalencephaly, Sotos’ syndrome (s. cerebral gigantism), FG syndrome, hemimegalencephaly, microencephaly, hypothalamic hamartomas

posterior fossa anomalies: Dev7 >>

incl. Chiari malformations (Arnold-Chiari malformation), Dandy–Walker malformation, mega cisterna magna, vermian–cerebellar hypoplasia.

intracranial arachnoid cysts: Onc30 >>


Cranial Anomalies: Dev9 >>

incl. melorheostosis, craniosynostosis (scaphocephaly, dolichocephaly, brachycephaly, trigonocephaly, plagiocephaly, oxycephaly, triphyllocephaly, kleeblattschädel, Crouzon's syndrome (s. craniofacial dysostosis), Apert's syndrome (s. acrocephalosyndactyly), turricephaly, turmschädel, Pfeiffer syndrome, Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, Carpenter syndrome, Jackson-Weiss syndrome, Autley-Bixler syndrome, Baller-Gerold syndrome, 9p monosomy, positional molding), macrocephaly (trisomy 9p syndrome, Robinow syndrome, Greig cephalopolysyndactyly, BESS syndrome (benign enlargement of subarachnoidal space), microcephaly (microcephalia vera, Cornelia de Lange syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome).

temporal bone anomalies: Ear42 >>

cranial remodeling: Dev15 >>

incl. fronto-orbital advancement.


Craniocervical Junction Anomalies: Dev9 >>

incl. basilar impression, basilar invagination, platybasia, convexobasia, atlantoaxial instability, os odontoideum, ossiculum terminale, third condyle, occipitalization of atlas (s. assimilation of atlas), dens hypoplasia, Klippel-Feil anomaly (MURCS syndrome, Escobar syndrome), atlanto-axial rotatory fixation, iniencephaly.


Neural Tube Disorders (s. dysraphism, neurulation defects): Dev3 >>

cranioschisis: Dev3 >>

incl. anencephaly, exencephaly, encephalocele, cranial meningocele, encephalocystocele, Meckel-Gruber syndrome, nasal glioma.

spina bifida: Dev3 >>

incl. spina bifida occulta, spina bifida manifesta / aperta / cystica, myelomeningocele, lückenschädel.

neurenteric cyst: Dev3 >>


Spinal Cord Anomalies: Dev5 >>

incl. diastematomyelia, diplomyelia, neuro-enteric cyst, dorsal dermal sinus, lipomyelomeningodysplasias (lipomyelomeningocele, lipomyelocele, lipomyeloschisis), subpial lipoma, intramedullary lipoma, abnormal retrogressive differentiation, tethered filum / tight filum / fatty filum, caudal regression syndromes, sacral agenesis, conus hypoplasia, spinal meningeal cysts (incl. Tarlov, s. perineural cysts), arachnoid cysts.


Spinal Anomalies: Dev9 >>

incl. vertebral fusion anomalies (synspondylism), transitional vertebrae, hemivertebrae, butterfly vertebrae, failure of fusion of secondary ossification centers, limbus vertebra, pedicle anomalies, lateral meningocele syndrome




E. Epilepsy & Seizures


ABNS (American Board of Neurological Surgery) exams:

Vignettes >>

Condensed review for written and oral exams >>


EEG: D27 >>


Epilepsy Definitions, Classifications, Clinical Features, Diagnosis: E1 >>

incl. sudden unexpected death in epilepsy.


Epilepsy Treatment Principles: E5 >>


Antiepileptic Drugs: E3 >>

incl. carbamazepine, phenytoin, fosphenytoin, oxcarbazepine, eslicarbazepine acetate, lamotrigine, zonisamide, lacosamide, rufinamide, ethosuximide, methsuximide, clonazepam, clobazam, diazepam, lorazepam, midazolam, phenobarbital, primidone, tiagabine, vigabatrin, valproate, gabapentin, felbamate, topiramate, levetiracetam, brivaracetam, pregabalin, acetazolamide, ketogenic diet, ezogabine, perampanel.


Status Epilepticus: E7 >>


Epileptic Syndromes: E9 >>

incl. benign childhood partial epilepsies, temporal lobe epilepsy, extratemporal neocortical epilepsy, gelastic seizures, epilepsia partialis continua (Rasmussen syndrome, s. Kozhevnikov, Kojevnikoff, Kojewnikoff epilepsy), absence epilepsy, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, myoclonic epilepsies of infancy and childhood, early myoclonic encephalopathy, early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (Ohtahara syndrome), benign (s. typical) myoclonic epilepsy of infancy, severe (s. complex) myoclonic epilepsy in infancy (Dravet syndrome), epilepsy with myoclonic absences, benign neonatal convulsions, febrile seizures, autoimmune epilepsies, West syndrome (infantile spasms), Aicardi syndrome, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, progressive myoclonic epilepsies, Lafora disease, Unverricht-Lundborg disease (Baltic myoclonus), acquired epileptic aphasia (Landau-Kleffner syndrome), neonatal seizures, breath-holding spells, psychogenic seizures (pseudoseizures), catamenial epilepsy, post-traumatic seizures, post-traumatic epilepsy.


Surgical Treatment

Principles of epilepsy surgical treatment: E11 >>

incl. intracarotid amobarbital (Wada) test, DBS, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), lesionectomy (focal cortical resection), tailored neocortical resection, multilobar resection.


Intracranial EEG: E13 >>

incl. subdural electrodes (grid, strip), depth electrodes, stereoEEG (SEEG), cortical mapping.


Temporal lobectomy: E15 >>

incl. Spencer anteromedial temporal lobectomy, standard en bloc anterior temporal lobectomy, selective amygdalohippocampectomy.


Multiple subpial transections: E17 >>


Hemispherectomy: E19 >>

incl. superficial cerebral hemosiderosis


Corpus callosotomy: E21 >>


Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS): E23 >>


Responsive neurostimulation (RNS, Neuropace): E25 >>


Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS): E27 >>

incl. SANTE trial



Ear. Otology

Basics (Anatomy, Histology, Physiology) >>

Otologic Examination >>

Otologic Symptoms & Signs >>

Inner Ear disorders >>

Middle Ear disorders >>

External Ear disorders >>


ABNS (American Board of Neurological Surgery) exams:

Condensed review for written and oral exams >>


Basics (Anatomy, Histology, Physiology)

development: Ear26-Ear27

malformations (incl. preauricular appendages and pits): Ear27

temporal bone anomalies: Ear42 >>


External ear: Ear01-Ear02

innervation: Ear02


Middle ear:

tympanic membrane (myrinx): Ear03-Ear04

tympanic cavity, auditory (eustachian) tube: Ear04-Ear06

auditory ossicles: Ear06-Ear07


Inner ear:

blood supply: Ear15

bony labyrinth: Ear08-Ear09

membranous labyrinth: Ear09-Ear10

sensory organs:

vestibular (macula, crista ampullaris): Ear10-Ear11

cochlear (organum spirale Corti): Ear12-Ear14


Cranial nerve 8 (n. vestibulocochlearis): Ear16, Onc62 >>


Vestibular system: Ear17-Ear20

vestibular physiology: Ear19, Ear21 >>

labyrinthectomy: Ear21 >>


Cochlear system: Ear22-Ear24

auditory cortex: A155 (2) >>

auditory physiology: Ear25 >>

middle ear: Ear07, Ear25 >>

inner ear: Ear14, Ear25 >>

hair cell function: Ear12a >>



Otologic Examination

“Bedside” ear examination: D1ear >>

incl. otoscopy, pneumatic otoscopy, tuning fork tests (air-bone conduction test of Rinne, lateralizing test of Weber, Schwabach test, Bing test), acoustic blink (cochleopalpebral, audiopalpebral) reflex, Halmagyi test, Fukuda test (s. stepping test of Unterberger), Dix-Hallpike maneuver, Nylen-Bárány maneuver, computerized platform posturography.


Instrumental auditory Examination: Ear30 >>

incl. pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, tympanometry (acoustic impedance), acoustic reflex testing, otoacoustic emissions, BAER s. BAEP (brain stem auditory evoked potentials), electrocochleography (ECoG), imaging (incl. Schüller view, Stenvers view), diagnostic tympanotomy, vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP).



Otologic Symptoms & Signs

Hearing loss (deafness): Ear32 >>

incl. pediatric hearing deficits, hearing aids (s. amplification), cochlear implants, auditory brainstem implants, psychogenic hearing loss.

sudden hearing loss: inner ear disorders >>

Tinnitus: Ear34 >>

Vertigo (dizziness): Ear34 >>

incl. vestibular suppressants

Earache (otalgia): Ear34 >>



Inner Ear disorders

Inner Ear disorders: Ear36 >>

incl. motion sickness, Ménière disease, Lermoyez syndrome, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, vestibular neuronitis, viral labyrinthitis, purulent labyrinthitis, serous labyrinthitis, labyrinthitis ossificans, sudden hearing loss, noise-induced hearing loss, acoustic trauma, presbycusis, drug-induced ototoxicity (toxic labyrinthitis), perilymphatic (labyrinthine) fistula, superficial siderosis


herpes zoster oticus (Ramsay Hunt syndrome): 256 (8) (infection)

temporal bone fractures: TrH5 >>

vestibular schwannoma (“acoustic neuroma”): Onc62 >>

trauma: TrH1 >>, TrH5 >>

temporal bone anomalies (incl. Mondini’s defect): Ear42 >>

labyrinthectomy: Ear21 >>



Middle Ear disorders

Middle Ear disorders: Ear38 >>

incl. tympanic membrane perforation, tympanoplasty, infectious (s. bullous) myringitis, acute otitis media, myringotomy, secretory (s. serous) otitis media, insertion of tympanostomy tube, adenoidectomy, acute mastoiditis, mastoidectomy, postauricular subperiosteal (Bezold) abscess, automastoidectomy, chronic suppurative otitis media, otosclerosis, cholesteatoma, neoplasms.


barotitis media: 2120 (1) (respiratory system)

trauma (hemotympanum, ossicle chain disruption): TrH1 >>, TrH5 >>

temporal bone anomalies: Ear42 >>



External Ear disorders

External Ear disorders: Ear40 >>

incl. obstructions (incl. cerumen [earwax] impaction, foreign body), external otitis, malignant external otitis, perichondritis, trauma (incl. subperichondrial hematoma, lacerations, fractures), tumors (incl. sebaceous cysts, osteomas, exostoses, keloids, ceruminomas).


temporal bone anomalies (incl. atresia of external auditory canal): Ear42 >>




Eye. Ophthalmology

Basics (Anatomy, Histology, Physiology) >>

Ophthalmologic Examination >>

Drugs in Ophthalmology >>

Ocular Symptoms & Signs >>

Optic Nerve & Visual Pathways disorders >>

Retinal disorders >>

Gaze and Autonomic Innervation disorders >>

Other disorders >>


ABNS (American Board of Neurological Surgery) exams:

Condensed review for written and oral exams >>


Ophthalmologic Examination

“bedside” eye examination: D1eye >>

ophthalmoscopy (funduscopy): Eye60 >>

incl. retinal hemorrhages, soft exudates, hard exudates, drusen, senile macular degeneration, papilledema, glaucomatous cupping, hypertensive retinopathy, diabetic retinopathy.

tonometry (Schiøtz, Goldman): Eye60 >>, Eye70 >>

gonioscopy: Eye70 >>

slit lamp examination (biomicroscopy): Eye60 >>

ultrasonography: Eye60 >>

electroretinogram: Eye60 >>

visual evoked potentials (VEP): Eye60 >>

fluorescein angiography: Eye63 >>

heterotropia (diplopia), heterophoria testing, Maddox rod: Eye64 >>

vestibulo-ocular testing: Eye64 >>

electronystagmography (ENG): Eye60 >>

intravenous fluorescein angiography (IVFA): Eye60 >>



Drugs in Ophthalmology

mydriatics (phenylephrine, tropicamide, cyclopentolate): Eye61 >>

cycloplegics (cyclopentolate, atropine, homatropine): Eye61 >>

miotics (pilocarpine): Eye61 >>

anesthetics: Eye61 >>

steroids: Eye61 >>

mast cell stabilizers (cromolyn, olopatadine, lodoxamide): Eye61 >>

antihistamines (azelastine, emedastine, ketotifen, levocabastine): Eye61 >>



Ocular Symptoms & Signs

red eye: Eye88 >>

blindness, amblyopia: Eye65 >>

psychogenic vision loss: Eye62 >>

anisocoria, light-near dissociation, unreactive pupils: Eye64 >>

diplopia: Eye64 >>

opsoclonus, ocular flutter, ocular bobbing, ocular dipping: Eye64 >>

oscillopsia, nystagmus: Eye64 >>

visual hallucinations, floaters, halos, photophobia, pain, scotomas, aniridia, Kayser-Fleischer ring: Eye59 >>



Basics (Anatomy, Histology, Physiology)

development: Eye22-Eye23

developmental anomalies (incl. coloboma, cyclopia [synophthalmia], microphthalmia): Eye23


blood supply: Eye21

blood-ocular barrier: Eye23

retinal vessels: Eye36


Orbita: Eye01-Eye03

fractures: Eye01


Eyelids (palpebrae): Eye04-Eye06

glands (tarsal meibomian, Zeis, ciliary Moll): Eye06


Conjunctiva: Eye07


Lacrimal apparatus: Eye07-Eye08


Eyeball: Eye24

Tenon capsule: Eye12

cornea: Eye24-Eye25

sclera: Eye26

anterior chamber, aqueous humor, chamber angle: Eye27

iris: Eye28

ciliary body: Eye29

choroid: Eye30

vitreous body: Eye30

crystalline lens: Eye31

retina: Eye32-Eye36a

macula lutea, fovea centralis: Eye36

retinal physiology: Eye36a >>

incl. visual pigments [scotopsin, rhodopsin, iodopsin, photopsin, retinol, retinene], transducin, receptive field, Young-Helmholtz theory, adaptation.


Eye optics: Eye55 >>

incl. refractive power, accommodation, near point, far point, visual acuity, critical fusion frequency, visual fields & binocular vision.

accommodation reflex → see autonomic innervation >>


Sensory innervation (n. ophthalmicus, CN51): Eye19

conjunctival: Eye07

lacrimal gland: Eye08


Visual pathways, CN2 (n. opticus), Visual cortex, Visual perception: Eye37-Eye38, Eye41,

Eye57 >>, A143 >>


Optomotor system: Eye13, Eye44-Eye53

incl. saccade, smooth pursuit, vestibulo-oculomotor reflexes, optokinetic reflexes, vergence.

extraocular muscles: Eye08-Eye12

Hering law: Eye13

CN 3 (n. oculomotorius): Eye14-Eye16

incl. Edinger-Westphal nucleus, Perlia nucleus, ganglion ciliare.

CN4 (n. trochlearis): Eye17

CN6 (n. abducens): Eye18

supranuclear pathways (incl. gaze centers, eye fields in cortex): Eye47-Eye53

superior colliculus: Eye50


Autonomic innervation:

sympathetic innervation: Eye19

control of pupillary size: Eye42-Eye43

accommodation reflex: Eye43



Optic Nerve & Visual Pathways disorders

lesion topography: Eye41, Eye62 >>

optic nerve: Eye62 >>

incl. Marcus Gunn pupil, Pulfrich phenomenon, Uhthoff phenomenon, papilledema (choked disk), pseudopapilledema, papillitis (optic neuritis), retrobulbar optic neuritis, optic nerve infarction (ischemic optic neuropathy), compressive optic neuropathy, toxic / nutritional optic neuropathy (s. alcohol-tobacco amblyopia), optic atrophy (optic nerve atrophy), Leber hereditary optic atrophy, Foster Kennedy syndrome, optic nerve hypoplasia.

radiation optic neuropathy: Rx11 >> 

optic chiasm: Eye62 >>

optic tract / lateral geniculate body: Eye62 >>

incl. Wernicke sign.

optic radiations: Eye62 >>

occipital lobe: Eye62 >>

incl. Cogan rule, Riddoch phenomenon.

higher cortical lesions: Eye62 >>

incl. Balint syndrome.

psychogenic (functional) visual loss: Eye62 >>

incl. “monocular blindness”, “poor vision”, monocular diplopia, monocular hemianopia, “tunnel” vision.

optic pathway glioma: Onc10 >>



Retinal disorders

Vascular occlusions: Eye63 >>

incl. central retinal artery occlusion, branch retinal artery occlusion (incl. Roth spots), central retinal vein occlusion.

Retinal detachment, proliferative vitreoretinopathy: Eye63 >>

Age-related macular degeneration (senile macular degeneration): Eye63 >>

incl. pegaptanib, ranibizumab.

Retinopathy of prematurity (retrolental fibroplasia): Eye63 >>

Retinitis pigmentosa: Eye63 >>

Neuroretinitis (papilloretinitis): Eye63 >>

Retinoblastoma: Eye63 >>

Color blindness: Eye63 >>

CMV retinitis: 268 >> (infection)

Retinal angioma: Onc24 >>



Gaze and Autonomic Innervation disorders

pupillary syndromes: Eye64 >>

incl. anisocoria (ocular parasympathetic syndrome, Holmes-Adie syndrome, Horner syndrome, Raeder paratrigeminal syndrome), light-near dissociation (Argyll Robertson pupil), bilateral unreactive pupils.

ocular misalignment syndromes: Eye64 >>

incl. heterophoria, heterotropia s. strabismus (esotropia, exotropia, hypertropia), diplopia, skew deviation, Magendie-Hertwig sign, Tolosa-Hunt syndrome, n. oculomotorius (cn3) disorders (Marcus Gunn syndrome, Marin Amat syndrome, Claude syndrome, Benedikt syndrome, Nothnagel syndrome), n. trochlearis (cn4) disorders, n. abducens (cn6) disorders (incl. Duane’s syndrome, Wildervanck cervico-oculo-acoustic syndrome), MLF syndromes (internuclear ophthalmoplegia, 1½ syndrome).

conjugate gaze disorders: Eye64 >>

incl. opsoclonus, ocular flutter, Parinaud syndrome (s. midbrain pretectal syndrome, dorsal midbrain syndrome), ocular bobbing, ocular dipping, oculogyric crisis.

vestibulo-ocular system: Eye64 >>

incl. oscillopsia, congenital nystagmus, vestibular nystagmus, Alexander law, gaze-evoked nystagmus, downbeat nystagmus, upbeat nystagmus, torsional (rotary) nystagmus, horizontal nystagmus, seesaw nystagmus, spasmus nutans, periodic alternating nystagmus, Bruns nystagmus.



Other disorders

Eyelid Disorders: Eye66 >>

incl. lid edema, blepharitis, hordeolum (external hordeolum, sty, internal hordeolum, meibomian sty, acute chalazion), chalazion (meibomian cyst), entropion & ectropion, tumors (incl. xanthelasma), lid retraction, lagophthalmos, (blepharo)ptosis.


Cataract (incl. intraocular lens): Eye68 >>


Glaucoma: Eye70 >>, Eye88 >>

carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (acetazolamide, dichlorphenamide, methazolamide, ethoxzolamide, dorzolamide, brinzolamide);

adrenergic agonists (epinephrine, dipivefrin, apraclonidine, brimonidine);

β-blockers (timolol, betaxolol, levobunolol, carteolol, metipranolol);

prostaglandin analogs (latanoprost, bimatoprost, travoprost, unoprostone).


Refractive Errors: Eye72 >>

incl. hyperopia, presbyopia, myopia, astigmatism, anisometropia.

Contact lenses: Eye72 >>

incl. Acanthamoeba keratitis, giant papillary conjunctivitis.

Refractive surgery: Eye72 >>

incl. radial keratotomy, astigmatic keratotomy, photorefractive keratectomy, laser in situ keratomileusis (lasik), intracorneal rings, clear lens extraction (s. refractive lens exchange), phakic intraocular lens implants, conductive keratoplasty.


Uveitis: Eye74 >>, Eye88 >>

incl. iritis, iridocyclitis, cyclitis, choroiditis, pars planitis, panuveitis (endophthalmitis), Behçet syndrome, birdshot chorioretinopathy, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome (uveoencephalitis), sympathetic ophthalmia, masquerade syndromes.


Corneal Disorders: Eye76 >>

incl. corneal abrasion, superficial punctate keratitis, corneal ulcer, serpiginous keratitis (ulcus serpens), bacterial keratitis, peripheral ulcerative keratitis (marginal keratolysis, peripheral rheumatoid ulceration), keratoconjunctivitis sicca, phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis, interstitial (parenchymatous) keratitis, keratomalacia (xerotic keratitis, xerophthalmia), keratoconus, bullous keratopathy, neurotrophic keratopathy, arcus lipoides senilis (gerontoxon).

herpetic keratoconjunctivitis: 256 (5) >> (infection)

acute follicular conjunctivitis, epidemic keratoconjunctivitis: 258 (2) >> (infection)

Corneal transplantation (s. penetrating keratoplasty): Eye76 >>


Conjunctival and Scleral Disorders: Eye78 >>

eye hyperemia, subconjunctival hemorrhages, conjunctival edema, chemosis, hyperplasia of lymphoid follicles, benign neoplasms of conjunctiva (pinguecula, pterygium): Eye78 >>

acute conjunctivitis: viral (incl. pharyngoconjunctival fever, epidemic keratoconjunctivitis, acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis), bacterial, ophthalmia neonatorum (s. blennorrhea neonatorum, neonatal conjunctivitis, infantile purulent conjunctivitis): Eye78 >>, Eye88 >>

chronic conjunctivitis: Eye78 >>

episcleritis, scleritis: Eye78 >>, Eye88 >>


Vitreous Disorders: Eye80 >>

incl. vitreous hemorrhage, Terson syndrome, posterior vitreous detachment.


Lacrimal Disorders: Eye82 >>

incl. dacryostenosis, dacryocystitis, dacryoadenitis.


Orbital Disorders: Eye84 >>

incl. periorbital cellulitis, orbital cellulitis, exophthalmos (proptosis).


Eye Trauma: Eye86 >>

incl. hyphema, foreign bodies, contusions & lacerations (eyelid, eyebrow, lacrimal canaliculi, globe), traumatic optic neuropathy, burns, iridodialysis, cyclodialysis, commotio retinae (retinal commotion).




Inf. Infections


ABNS (American Board of Neurological Surgery) exams

Quick Read on the morning of oral exam >>

Condensed review for written and oral exams >>



GENERAL: Inf1 >>

incl. dosages of antibiotics and antivirals.


Postoperative Infections: Op120 >>


Meningitis (s. arachnoiditis, leptomeningitis): Inf3 >>

incl. meningism (pseudomeningitis), Austrian syndrome, tuberculous meningitis, intracerebral tuberculoma, Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare meningitis, cryptococcal meningitis, cryptococcomas, neonatal meningitis, geriatric meningitis, posttraumatic meningitis, hemogenic meningitis, basal meningitis, spinal meningitis, spinal adhesive arachnoiditis, Mollaret meningitis (s. benign recurrent lymphocytic meningitis).


Abscess, Empyema: Inf5 >>

incl. intracerebral abscess, cerebritis, Toxoplasma gondii encephalitis, aspergillosis, intramedullary spinal cord abscess, subdural empyema (cranial, spinal), epidural abscess (cranial, spinal).


Osteomyelitis: Inf7 >>

incl. cranial osteomyelitis, vertebral osteomyelitis (s. infective spondylitis), Pott’s disease (tuberculous spondylitis), infectious diskitis.


Encephalitis: Inf9 >>

incl. herpes simplex encephalitis, VZV encephalomyelitis, arbovirus encephalitides (Eastern equine, Japanese B, St. Louis, Western equine, West Nile, Venezuelan equine, California - La Crosse, Dengue fever, Colorado tick fever, Powassan, Far East tick-borne, European tick-borne), encephalitis lethargica (von Economo disease), Balamuthia amebic encephalitis.


Parasitic Nervous System Infections: Inf11 >>

incl. neurocysticercosis, echinococcosis, amebiasis.


Slow infections: 266 >>

incl. prion diseases (prionoses), Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease), kuru, Gerstmann-Straüssler-Scheinker disease, fatal familial insomnia.



Neurosyphilis: 239 (11-14) >>

Neuroborreliosis: 240 (6a) >>

Measles Encephalitides: 265 (7a) >>

HIV, AIDS (neurologic aspects): 270 >>




Met. Metabolic disorders

Metabolic myopathies: Met1 >>

incl. myoadenylate deaminase deficiency.


Mitochondrial disorders: Met5 >>

incl. Leigh disease (subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy), Alpers disease (progressive infantile cerebral poliodystrophy), Kearns-Sayre syndrome, Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome, merrf (myoclonic epilepsy and ragged red fibers syndrome), melas (mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, stroke-like episodes), narp (neuropathy, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa syndrome), mngie, s. mepop, polip, lethal infantile mitochondrial disease, Luft disease, mitochondrial dna depletion syndrome, disorders of citric acid cycle.

Leber hereditary optic atrophy: Eye62 >>

chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia: Eye64 >>

Reye syndrome: 265 (1) >> (infection)


Degenerative CNS diseases: Met7 >>

incl. neurodegenerative diseases, trinucleotide repeat diseases, anticipation.


Hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome: Met9 >>




Mov. Movement disorders, Ataxias

UMN & LMN disorders >>

Extrapyramidal disorders >>

Cerebellar disorders >>

Gait disorders >>


ABNS (American Board of Neurological Surgery) exams:

Condensed review for written and oral exams >>



decorticate / decerebrate rigidity: A61 >>


Surgery for movement disorders: Op360 >>

incl. thalamotomy, pallidotomy, subthalamotomy, DBS



Upper motoneuron (UMN) & Lower motoneuron (LMN) disorders

GENERAL (UMN (pyramidal) & LMN disorders): Mov3 >>

incl. weakness, muscle tone abnormalities (hypotonia, spasticity, rigidity, paratonia / gegenhalten), fatigability, pseudobulbar paralysis*, "locked in" syndrome (s. pseudocoma)*, bulbar paralysis*, fasciculations, benign fasciculations (Denny-Brown, Foley syndrome), fibrillations, myokymia, cramp (s. spasm), muscle stiffness, tetany, contractures, paraparesis, hemiparesis, tetraparesis, monoparesis, bibrachial paresis, neck weakness ("floppy head" syndrome), hyporeflexia, bilateral hyperreflexia, acute generalized weakness, episodic weakness, drop attack.

*also see A59 >>

spasticity and it treatment: Mov3 >>

muscle relaxants: Mov3 >>

incl. baclofen, tizanidine, cyclobenzaprine, methocarbamol, carisoprodol, chlorzoxazone, metaxalone, orphenadrine



Extrapyramidal disorders

GENERAL (extrapyramidal movement disorders): Mov1 >>

incl. hyperkinesias, hypokinesias, tremor (physiologic tremor, dystonic tremor, essential tremor, familial [benign hereditary] tremor, Homes tremor, orthostatic tremor, primary writer's tremor, shuddering attacks, hereditary chin trembling), tic, mannerisms, chorea, ballismus, athetosis, myoclonus, asterixis, dystonia, tardive (s. oral-buccal-lingual) dyskinesia, akathisia, psychogenic movement disorders (stereotypy, catatonia).

acute dystonia, tardive dyskinesia, akathisia as neuroleptic side effects: Psy9 >>

myoclonic encephalopathy (opsoclonus - myoclonus paraneoplastic syndrome): Onc20 >>


Parkinsonism, Parkinson’s disease: Mov10 >>

incl. antiparkinsonism drugs - L-DOPA (levodopa), carbidopa, benserazide, tolcapone, entacapone, bromocriptine, pergolide, pramipexole, ropinirole, cabergoline, apomorphine, rotigotine, amantadine, deprenyl (selegiline), rasagiline, benztropine, trihexyphenidyl, biperiden.

Secondary Parkinsonism: Mov11 >>

incl. drug-induced parkinsonism, mptp-induced parkinsonism, postencephalitic parkinsonism, hemiparkinsonism-hemiatrophy syndrome, "lower-body parkinsonism".

Parkinsonism-Plus Syndromes, Heredodegenerative Parkinsonism: Mov12 >>

incl. progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal ganglionic degeneration, multiple system atrophy (striatonigral degeneration, olivopontocerebellar atrophy, Shy-Drager syndrome), Lytico-Bodig (parkinsonism-dementia-als complex of Guam), Hallervorden-Spatz disease, familial basal ganglia calcifications, Wilson disease (hepatolenticular degeneration).


Choreas: Mov20 >>

incl. Huntington disease, Sydenham chorea (St. Vitus' dance, acute chorea, chorea minor), other immune choreas, chorea gravidarum, birth control pill chorea, senile chorea, neuroacanthocytosis, hemichorea & hemiballism, hereditary nonprogressive chorea.


Dystonias: Mov21 >>

incl. primary dystonia (s. dystonia musculorum deformans, idiopathic torsion dystonia), cervical dystonia (s. spasmodic torticollis), blepharospasm, writer's cramp, dystonia of vocal cords, dystonia-plus syndromes (dopa-responsive dystonia, X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism).


Drug-Induced Movement Disorders: Mov25 >>

incl. acute dystonic reactions, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, withdrawal emergent syndrome, tardive dyskinesia syndromes, akathisia.


Various other movement disorders: Mov22 >>

incl. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, chronic tic disorder, transient tic disorder of childhood, essential myoclonus, palatal myoclonus, myoclonic dystonia, startle syndromes (s. hyperexplexia), paroxysmal dyskinesias, painful legs - moving toes syndrome, post-traumatic movement disorders



Cerebellar disorders

GENERAL (cerebellar disorders): Mov5 >>

incl. ataxia, vestibulocerebellum (caudal vermis syndrome, s. flocculonodular syndrome), spinocerebellum (rostral vermis syndrome, s. anterior lobe syndrome), cerebrocerebellum (cerebellar hemisphere syndrome), pancerebellar syndrome, cerebellar oculomotor syndromes, cerebellovascular syndromes, paroxysmal ataxia.

cerebellar mutism: Onc18 >>

alcoholic cerebellar degeneration: Psy21 >>


Ataxias: Mov50 >>

incl. Friedreich ataxia, early-onset cerebellar ataxia with retained tendon reflexes, congenital ataxias, Joubert syndrome, ataxia-telangiectasia, ataxia due to vit. e deficiency, abetalipoproteinemia (Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome), spinocerebellar ataxia type 1, 2, 3 (Machado-Joseph disease), 4, 5, 6, 7, dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy, episodic ataxia type 1-2, nonhereditary, idiopathic cerebellar ataxia (cerebellar type, plus type), acute cerebellar ataxia.



Gait disorders

GENERAL (gait disorders): Mov7 >>

incl. falls, immobility, dyssynergy syndromes (freezing, frontal disequilibrium [Bruns ataxia, s. frontal ataxia], frontal gait), sensory gait syndromes (sensory ataxia, vestibular ataxia, visual ataxia, multisensory disequilibrium), perception / orientation syndromes, motor force disorders, force scaling disorders (parkinsonian gait, choreic gaits, dystonic gaits, cerebellar ataxia, corticospinal gaits), impaired adaptation and strategies (post-fall syndrome), psychogenic gait disorders.




Mus. Muscular, Neuromuscular disorders

GENERAL (Neuromuscular Disorders): Mus0 >>


Neuromuscular Junction disorders:

Myasthenia Gravis: Mus1 >>

incl. edrophonium chloride (Tensilon) test, thymectomy.

Congenital Myasthenias, Eaton-Lambert Syndrome: Mus2 >>

incl. amifampridine phosphate (Firdapse)


Muscular Dystrophies: Mus5 >>

incl. dystrophinopathies (Duchenne, Becker), Xp21 myopathies, McLeod syndrome, facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (s. Landouzy-Dejerine disease), scapuloperoneal syndromes, myotonic dystrophy (s. Steinert disease), myotonic dystrophy type 2 (s. Thornton-Griggs-Moxley disease, proximal myotonic dystrophy), Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, Hauptmann-Thannhauser muscular dystrophy, Bethlem myopathy, oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy, limb girdle muscular dystrophies, severe childhood autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy, distal muscular dystrophies, congenital muscular dystrophies (incl. Fukuyama, Walker-Warburg, muscle-eye-brain of Santavuori).


Skeletal Muscle Channelopathies: Mus7 >>

incl. hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, paramyotonia congenita (s. Eulenburg disease), sodium channel myotonias, autosomal dominant myotonia congenita (Thomsen disease), autosomal recessive myotonia congenita (Becker disease), hypokalemic periodic paralysis, Schwartz-Jampel syndrome (s. chondrodystrophic myotonia), thyrotoxic periodic paralysis, Andersen's syndrome, Brody's disease, rippling muscle disease, neuromyotonia (s. Isaacs' syndrome).


Congenital Myopathies: Mus9 >>

incl. nemaline myopathy, myotubular-centronuclear myopathy, central core disease, congenital fiber-type disproportion, other congenital myopathies.


Congenital Muscle Anomalies: Mus9 >>

incl. brain malformations and muscle development, amyoplasia, proteus syndrome (s. muscular dysgenesis, elephant man's disease).


Rhabdomyolysis, Myoglobinuria, Toxic Myopathies: Mus11 >>

malignant hyperthermia: 3910 (1-2) >> (intensive care)




Onc. Oncology

Brain & Skull tumors >>

Spinal & Vertebral tumors >>

Nerve tumors >>



Neurological Paraneoplastic Syndromes: Onc66 >>

incl. paraneoplastic antibodies (anti-Hu, antineuronal nuclear antibody, anti-Ri, anti-Yo, anti-Purkinje cell antibodies).



Brain & Skull tumors

ABNS (American Board of Neurological Surgery) exams:

Vignettes >>

Quick Read on the morning of oral exam >>

Condensed review for written and oral exams >>



Brain Tumors (GENERAL): Onc1 >>

incl. Bailey & Cushing schema, Gorlin syndrome (nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome), Muir-Torre syndrome, Karnofsky performance scale.

Brain Biopsy: Op310 >>


Brain Tumors (TREATMENT): Onc3 >>

incl. Cavitron ultrasonic aspirator (CUSA), CO2 laser, P-glycoprotein, methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT), BBB disruption, fluorescence-guided resection (s. chemonavigation, 5-ALA).

incl. specific drugs: temozolomide (Temodar), bevacizumab (Avastin)

incl. patient classes - Memorial Sloan Kettering recursive partitioning analysis (RPA)

Surgical Removal Technique (brain tumors): Op340 >>


Brain Tumor Types

Astrocytomas: Onc10 >>

incl. Kernohan-Sayre grade, St. Anne/Mayo grade, Bailey and Cushing classification, MGMT methylation, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-1 mutation, subependymal giant-cell astrocytoma (SEGA), pilocytic astrocytoma,  pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA), glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), gliomatosis cerebri, brainstem gliomas, optic pathway glioma, gliosarcoma, GammaTile, Optune


Oligodendrogliomas: Onc12 >>


Oligoastrocytomas: Onc13 >>


Ependymoma, subependymoma: Onc14 >>


Choroid Plexus Tumors: Onc16 >>

incl. choroid plexus papilloma, choroid plexus carcinoma.


Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors: Onc18 >>

incl. medulloblastoma, cerebellar mutism (posterior fossa syndrome), Collin law, ependymoblastoma.


Neuroblastic Tumors: Onc20 >>

incl. neuroblastoma, Hutchinson syndrome, Pepper syndrome, “blueberry muffin” baby, opsoclonus - myoclonus paraneoplastic syndrome (myoclonic encephalopathy), International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS), Evans staging system, Shimada histopathologic classification, Joshi histopathologic classification, ganglioneuroma (ganglioma), gangliocytoma (s. central ganglioneuroma), atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor.


Neuronal and Mixed Tumors: Onc22 >>

incl. (central) neurocytoma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, ganglioglioma, gangliocytoma, Lhermitte-Duclos disease (dysplastic gangliocytoma of cerebellum), desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma and astrocytoma (DIG/DIA).


Vascular Tumors: Onc24 >>

incl. hemangioblastoma, Lindau tumor, von Hippel-Lindau disease, solitary fibrous tumor (hemangiopericytoma).


Pituitary Tumors: Onc26 >>

incl. pituitary adenomas, pituitary carcinomas, empty sella syndrome, pituitary apoplexy, hypophysitis, IgG4 disease, craniopharyngioma.

anterior pituitary disorders, prolactinoma: 2738 >>

ADH disorders: 2516 >>


Pineal Region Tumors, Pineal Parenchymal Tumors: Onc28 >>

incl. pinealoma (pineoblastoma, pineocytoma).


Germ Cell Tumors: Onc29 >>

incl. germinoma (intracranial seminoma), embryonal cell carcinoma, teratoma, rhabdoid tumor, yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus tumor), choriocarcinoma.


Dermoid tumor, Epidermoid tumor (s. cholesteatoma), Colloid Cysts, Arachnoid Cysts, Neurenteric Cyst, Lipoma, Mucocele: Onc30 >>


Brain Metastases: Onc32 >>

incl. CNS melanoma, neurocutaneous melanosis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) classes


Leptomeningeal Metastases (s. Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis, Neoplastic Meningitis): Onc34 >>

incl. intrathecal therapy.


Primary CNS Lymphoma: Onc36 >>

incl. intravascular malignant lymphomatosis (s. neoplastic angioendotheliosis, angiotropic lymphoma), neurolymphomatosis.


Meningioma: Onc38 >>

incl. Simpson grades.


Skull Tumors: Onc40 >>

incl. osteoma, osteoid osteoma, ossifying fibroma, osteoblastoma, osteosarcoma, chondromas (enchondroma, juxtacortical chondroma, osteochondroma), chondromyxoid fibromas, chondroblastomas, chondrosarcoma, desmoplastic fibroma, fibrosarcoma, giant cell granuloma, nonossifying fibroma, xanthoma, Ewing sarcoma, giant cell tumor (osteoclastoma), eosinophilic granuloma, hemangioma, lymphangioma, angiosarcoma, esthesioneuroblastoma, fibrous dysplasia, Paget disease, aneurysmal bone cysts, multiple myeloma, hyperostoses, hyperostosis frontalis interna, metastases.


Chordoma, ecchordosis physaliphora: Onc42 >>



Spinal & Vertebral tumors

ABNS (American Board of Neurological Surgery) exams:

Vignettes >>

Quick Read on the morning of oral exam >>

Condensed review for written and oral exams >>


Spinal cord compression – see “Spinal” >>


Intramedullary Spinal Tumors: Onc50 >>

incl. Fincher syndrome, ependymoma, astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, developmental tumors [dermoid, epidermoid, teratoma], hemangioblastoma, lipoma, subependymoma, ganglioglioma, intramedullary schwannoma, neurofibroma, metastases.


Intradural Extramedullary Spinal Tumors: Onc54 >>

incl. spinal cysts (arachnoid, ependymal, enterogenous, branchiogenic), meningioma, lipoma,

neurofibroma, schwannoma, leptomeningeal metastases.


Extradural Spinal Tumors, Vertebral Tumors: Onc56 >>

incl. NOMS decision making factors, spinal instability neoplastic score (SINS), enostosis, osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, osteosarcoma (osteogenic sarcoma), giant cell tumor (osteoclastoma), osteochondroma (solitary osteocartilaginous exostosis), chondrosarcoma, aneurysmal bone cyst, Ewing sarcoma, multiple myeloma, solitary plasmacytoma, eosinophilic granuloma, hemangioma, angiolipoma, metastases, Hauser Ambulation Index (HAI).

cervical chordoma: Onc42 >>



Nerve tumors

ABNS (American Board of Neurological Surgery) exams:

Quick Read on the morning of oral exam >>

Condensed review for written and oral exams >>


Nerve Tumors: Onc60 >>

incl. schwannoma (neurilemoma, neurinoma), Enneking staging system, neurofibroma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, nerve sheath fibrosarcoma, malignant schwannoma, triton tumor, peripheral nerve metastases, lipofibromatosis of median nerve.


Schwannomas of Cranial Nerves: Onc62 >>

incl. cerebellopontine angle tumors, vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma), facial schwannoma, trigeminal schwannoma, hypoglossal schwannoma.


Paragangliomas: Onc64 >>

incl. paraganglia, chemodectoma, glomus jugulare tumor, glomus tympanicum tumor, Fisch classification, Brown sign.

spinal: Onc54 >>




Op. Operative Techniques

CSF sampling & shunting >>

Cranial >>

Spine >>

Nerves >>

Non-neurosurgical (but used in neurosurgery) >>


ABNS (American Board of Neurological Surgery) exams:

Condensed review for written and oral exams >>



General Principles of Perioperative Neurosurgery: Op120 >>

incl. medications, nausea and vomiting, feeding, minimally invasive hemodynamic monitoring (Vigileo monitor), postoperative pain, postoperative infections


General Principles of Operative Neurosurgery: Op100 >>

incl. neuroanesthesia, hemostasis, medications, patient positioning, prepping and draping, physiological tremor

intraoperative electrophysiologic monitoring: D25 >>


Surgical Instruments, Materials: Op140 >>

incl. needles, Hemo-Seal (HS-7), hemostatic materials, Gelfoam, liquid fibrin, liquid thrombin, LeGoo gel, Raplixa, electrocoagulation, nonstick bipolar, skin substitutes, SurgiMend, AlloDerm, bone substitutes, OrthoFix, polyetheretherketone (PEEK), dural sealants, Vistaseal, Dura Seal, Adherus, BioGlue, Tisseel, Evicel, dural substitutes, SepraFilm, DuraGen, Synthecel, Dura-Guard, bone growth stimulators, head holders, Mayfield Infinity pediatric head holder, Integra radiolucent Mayfield, pins (Doro, pediatric pins), cranial plating, cranioplasty, drills and drill bits, rongeurs, retractors, Vycor retractor, NICO BrainPath retractor, Budde® Halo Retractor, CNS parenchyma ablators, CUSA, Myriad, AXIS table, ventricular endoscopes (NeuroPen, Little Lotta, Paediscope).


Neuronavigation, Stereotactic Neurosurgery: Op30 >>

incl. frame-based stereotaxis, frameless stereotaxis, fiducials, Medtronic Stealth (Synergy Cranial, AxiEM, Frame Link), Stryker.


Robotic Assistance in Neurosurgery: Op40 >>

incl. ROSA, NeuroMate, Mazor

Globus ExcelsiusGPS: Op41 >>


Interventional Neuroradiology (Endovascular Procedures), Catheter Angiography: D61 >>

incl. conventional angiography, digital subtraction angiography (DSA), biplane angiography, 3D rotational angiography, spinal angiography, ICG (indocyanine green) angiography.

intracarotid amobarbital (Wada) test: E11 >>



CSF sampling & shunting

Lumbar Puncture (s. Spinal Tap): Op3 >>

incl. Queckenstedt test, Tobey-Ayer test, lumbar drain.


Other CSF Sampling Procedures: Op5 >>

incl. cisternal (s. suboccipital) puncture, lateral cervical puncture, ventricular puncture.


External Ventricular Drainage (EVD, Ventriculostomy): Op6 >>

incl. Kocher's point, Paine's point, Frazier burr hole, Bactiseal and Becker catheters,


CSF Access Implantable Devices: Op9 >>

incl. Ommaya® reservoir, Leroy device.


CSF Shunting Procedures: Op10 >>; may also check S60 >>

incl. ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt, brands of valves (Codman Certas, Aesculap, Medtronic Strata, Sophysa Polaris, Codman-Hakim), ventriculo-atrial (VA) shunt, shunt revision, ventricular endoscopy, endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), septostomy, lumbo-peritoneal (LP) shunt.




Brain biopsy:

tissue techniques, histological findings: D34 >>

surgical technique, perioperative care: Op310 >>


Epilepsy surgeries – see “Epilepsy”


Craniotomies: Op300 >>

incl. surgical anatomy of cranium, awake craniotomy (incl. mapping), transnasal endoscopic access to anterior cranial floor, frontal (unilateral) craniotomy, bifrontal craniotomy, fronto-temporo-zygomatic craniotomy, subfrontal craniotomy, parietal craniotomy, (sub)temporal craniotomy, pterional craniotomy, pterional craniotomy with orbitozygomatic extension (“OZ craniotomy”), anterior clinoidectomy, transoral clival approach, transpetrosal approaches to posterior fossa (anterior (medial) transpetrosal approaches (Kawase, s. anterior petrosectomy), posterior transpetrosal (presigmoid) approaches), retrolabyrinthine (presigmoid) craniotomy, temporopolar (half-and-half) approach to the basilar artery and the retrosellar space, posterior fossa / midline suboccipital craniotomy, lateral suboccipital craniotomy, retrosigmoid (retromastoid) craniotomy, extended retrosigmoid craniotomy, supracerebellar infratentorial craniotomy (air embolism), far-lateral suboccipital craniotomy, transcondylar craniotomy


Trans-sphenoidal Pituitary Resection: Op305 >>


Cranial remodeling: Dev15 >>


Trauma (Cranial) Procedures: Op320 >>

incl. scalp wounds, skull fractures (incl. depressed, ping pong, leptomeningeal cyst), burr hole washout of subdural hematoma, acute SDH / EDH evacuation, decompressive craniectomies (hemicraniectomy, bifrontal Kjellberg), penetrating brain injuries, dural venous sinus injury, syndrome of the trephined

subdural tap through fontanel: TrH13 >>


Cranioplasty: Op330 >>


Brain Tumors (resection techniques): Op340 >>


Laser Ablation (LITT): Op345 >>


Cerebrovascular (open techniques): Op350 >>

incl. aneurysm clipping, AVM extirpation, carotid endarterectomy, EDAS (encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis)

temporal artery biopsy: Op358 >>


Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS): Op360 >>

for epilepsy – see epilepsy >>

Condensed review for ABNS written and oral exams >>




Surgery of Cervical Spine: Op210 >>

arthroplasty (artificial total disk replacement): Op215 >>

Surgery of Thoracolumbosacral Spine: Op220 >>

arthroplasty (artificial total disk replacement): Op225 >>

Surgery of Syringomyelia: Op230 >>

Cord Stimulators, Intrathecal Pumps: Op240 >>

Surgery of Cord and Spine Developmental Anomalies: Op250 >>

Surgery of Spinal Tumors: Op260 >>

Spinal Anesthesia (s. Subarachnoid Block), Epidural Anesthesia: Op7 >>

Spinal Pain Procedures: Op270 >>

incl. steroid injections (epidural, transforaminal, ESI)

Sacroiliac (SI) joint Fusion: Op 290 >>




Surgery of Cranial Nerves: Op400 >>

incl. trigeminal neuralgia.


Surgery of Peripheral Nerves: Op450 >>

incl. surgery for PNS trauma, neurolysis (carpal tunnel, ulnar nerve), peripheral nerve stimulators, allograft nerve repair


Nerve biopsy:

tissue techniques, histological findings: D32 >>

surgical technique, perioperative care: Op450 >>


Blockades of Peripheral Nerves: Op460 >>

incl. n. occipitalis major, minor, n. supraorbitalis, n. supratrochlearis, n. infraorbitalis, n. mentalis, cervical plexus (superficial block), brachial plexus, n. suprascapularis, n. ulnaris, n. medianus, n. radialis, nn. digitales manus, n. intercostalis, n. ilioinguinalis, n. iliohypogastricus, sacral (caudal) epidural block, n. pudendus (saddle block), n. femoralis, n. cutaneus femoris lateralis, n. ischiadicus, n. tibialis, n. suralis, n. saphenus, n. peroneus, nn. digitales pedis.



Non-neurosurgical (but used in neurosurgery)

Tracheostomy, Coniotomy: Op900 >>

Vascular Access: Op910 >>

Non-Neuro Biopsy: Op920 >>

            incl. muscle biopsy, fat biopsy



Ped. Pediatrics

Pediatric neurological examination – see diagnostics >>

Hydrocephalus – see CSF, ICP >>

Congenital and developmental anomalies – see developmental disorders >>

Neurocutaneous disorders – see phacomatoses >>

Tumors – see oncology >>

Pediatric aspects of TBI – see head trauma >>


ABNS (American Board of Neurological Surgery) exams:

Vignettes >>

Quick Read on the morning of oral exam >>

Condensed review for written and oral exams >>



Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), ALTE (apparent life-threatening event): Ped1 >>


Child Maltreatment (Abuse and Neglect): Ped3 >>

incl. corporal punishment, failure to thrive, female genital mutilation.


Developmental Delay: Ped5 >>

incl. speech delay, cerebral palsy, spastic hemiparesis (hemiplegia), spastic diparesis (diplegia), s. Little disease, spastic quadriplegia, hypotonic cerebral palsy, dyskinetic cerebral palsy, ataxic cerebral palsy.


Differential Diagnosis of Pediatric Neurodisorders: Ped7 >>


Perinatal Period: Ped9 >>

incl. Apgar score, new Ballard score, circumcision, prematurity, postdatism, postmaturity, small-for-gestational-age (SGA, dysmaturity, intrauterine growth restriction, IUGR), symmetric growth retardation, asymmetric (head sparing) growth retardation, large-for-gestational-age (LGA), Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, perinatal asphyxia, newborn resuscitation, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (incl. status marmoratus, Sarnat classification, multicystic encephalomalacia), neonatal hypothermia, birth trauma (subependymal / intraventricular hemorrhage, caput succedaneum, cephalhematoma, subgaleal hematoma, cranial nerve injury, brachial plexus injuries, fractures, soft-tissue injuries), periventricular / intraventricular hemorrhage (PVH-IVH), periventricular hemorrhagic venous infarction, periventricular leukomalacia (PVL).

newborn screening: 4800 >> (public health)


Infancy, Childhood, Adolescence: Ped11 >>

incl. nutrition, breastfeeding, human milk, colostrum, breast weaning, bottle feeding, formulas, starting solid foods, regurgitation, spitting mucus, underfeeding, refusing food, overfeeding, growth, safety, sleeping, resistance to going to bed, awakening during night, diaper rash, intertrigo, teething, pacifier, crying, television, sports, recurrent pain syndromes (recurrent abdominal pain syndrome, headache, limb pain = "growing pains"), pediatric mortality.


erythematous flush (“boiled lobster”), cutis marmorata, acrocyanosis, harlequin dyschromic, mongolian spots, nevus flammeus (“port-wine stain”), erythema toxicum neonatorum, transient neonatal pustular melanosis: Exam11 >>


Psychosocial Pediatrics: Ped13 >>

incl. child care (s. day care, nursery school, babysitting), foster care, adoption, divorce, malformed infant, death (infant death, death of family member or friend).




Pha. Phacomatoses (neurocutaneous disorders)


ABNS (American Board of Neurological Surgery) exams:

Condensed review for written and oral exams >>


Phacomatoses (GENERAL): Pha1 >>

incl. Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, Rud syndrome, Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, proteus syndrome.


Neurofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen’s disease): Pha3 >>

incl. meningioangiomatosis, schwannosis, glial hamartia (microhamartomas), schwannomatosis


Tuberous Sclerosis (Bourneville’s disease): Pha5 >>


Sturge-Weber syndrome (encephalotrigeminal angiomatosis): Pha7 >>

incl. Roach Scale classification.




PN. Peripheral Neuropathies

surgery, biopsy, blockades of peripheral nerves → see “Op. Operative Techniques” >>

PNS demyelination → see “Dem. Demyelinating Disorders” >>


ABNS (American Board of Neurological Surgery) exams:

Vignettes >>

Quick Read on the morning of oral exam >>

Condensed review for written and oral exams:

anatomy, examination >>

diagnostics, disorders >>




incl. polyneuropathy, mononeuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex, radiculopathy, dorsal root ganglion syndromes (sensory ganglionitis), food supplements for reversing neuropathies.


vasculitic neuropathies: PN11 >>

critical illness polyneuropathy: PN11 >>

toxic neuropathies: PN11 >>

paraneoplastic neuropathies: Onc66 >>


Hereditary Neuropathies: PN3 >>

hereditary sensory and motor neuropathies (hsmn): PN3 >>

incl. hsmn i (s. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 1, peroneal muscular atrophy), Roussy-Levy disease, hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (s. hnpp, tomaculous neuropathy), hsmn ii (s. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 2), hsmn iii (s. Dejerine-Sottas disease), cmt 4

hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (hsan): PN3 >>

incl. hsan i (hereditary sensory radicular neuropathy), hsan ii (congenital sensory neuropathy), hsan iii (familial dysautonomia, Riley-Day syndrome), hsan iv (familial sensory neuropathy with anhidrosis, congenital insensitivity to pain), hsan v (congenital sensory neuropathy with selective loss of small myelinated fibers).

hereditary sensory neuropathies (hsn): PN3 >>

giant axonal neuropathy, familial amyloid polyneuropathy: PN3 >>


Compressive Neuropathies (s. Entrapment Neuropathies, Tunnel Syndromes): PN5 >>

incl. n. medianus, carpal tunnel syndrome, n. ulnaris, cubital tunnel syndrome, n. radialis, Saturday night palsy, radial tunnel (s. posterior interosseus nerve) syndrome, thoracic outlet syndrome, n. suprascapularis, n. ischiadicus, piriformis syndrome, sciatica, n. peroneus, n. tibialis, tarsal tunnel syndrome, meralgia paresthetica, Morton’s neuroma.

deep posterior compartment syndrome (n. tibialis): A22 (7)

anterior compartment syndrome (n. peroneus profundus): A22 (9)


Trauma of Peripheral Nerves: PN7 >>

incl. traumatic neuroma (also see A5 >>), neurapraxia, axonotmesis, neurotmesis, neurorrhaphy, cable grafts.

surgical treatment: Op450 >>

brachial plexus trauma, birth trauma – see “Plexopathies” PN9 >>


Plexopathies: PN9 >>

incl. brachial plexopathies, brachial plexus trauma, Duchenne-Erb palsy, Dejerine-Klumpke palsy, neuralgic amyotrophy (s. brachial plexitis, Parsonage-Turner syndrome, shoulder-girdle syndrome), lumbosacral plexopathies.

brachial plexus birth trauma: Ped9 >>



Psy. Psychiatry & Behavioral Science

Psychiatry Basics >>

Psychotic disorders >>

Mood (Affective) disorders >>

Substance-related disorders >>

Other disorders >>


ABNS (American Board of Neurological Surgery) exams:

Condensed review for written and oral exams >>



genetics of behavioral and psychiatric disorders: 3777-3780 (genetics)


Psychiatry Basics

Behavioral Science Basics: Psy1 >>

incl. animal models and human behavior, motivation & consummatory behaviors (eating, hunger, drinking, sexual and reproductive behavior, sexual development, sexual behavior, aggression, self-stimulation of brain, animal models of substance abuse, conflict situations, animal models of psychiatric disorders, theories of mind [psychoanalytic (psychodynamic) theory, s. freudian theory, instincts (drives), psychosexual stages, Oedipus complex, id, ego, superego, psychoanalysis, learning theory (behaviorism), cognitive theory, psychosocial theory, biomedical theory], life cycle, death and dying, social and family behavior, biopsychosocial model, interpersonal behavior, large group behavior, family behavior (marriage, divorce, single-parent families, family life cycle), human sexuality.


Psychiatric Examination: Psy3 >>

incl. psychological testing (s. psychometric evaluation), personality tests.


Psychiatry (general): Psy5 >>

incl. definitions (mood, affect, anxiety, thought process [circumstantiality, tangentiality, derailment, clang associations, blocking, flight of ideas, confabulation, echolalia, perseveration, verbigeration, word salad, neologisms], thought content, hallucinations, hallucinosis, illusion, delusion, frontal lobe syndrome), classification of mental disorders (dsm), therapies (psychotherapy, hypnosis, family therapy, psychopharmacology, electroconvulsive therapy ect), psychiatric emergency (crisis, aggressive patient), legal issues, pediatric aspects (circular behavioral pattern, temper tantrum, bonding, attachment, hospitalism, anaclitic depression, vulnerable child syndrome, thumb sucking).



Psychotic disorders

Psychosis: Psy9 >>


Neuroleptics (s. Antipsychotics, Major Tranquilizers): Psy9 >>

incl. chlorpromazine, prochlorperazine, thioridazine, mesoridazine, pimozide, perphenazine, trifluoperazine, fluphenazine, thiothixene, chlorprothixene, haloperidol, droperidol, loxapine, molindone, clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, aripiprazole, paliperidone.

neuroleptic motor side effects (incl. neuroleptic malignant syndrome): Mov25 >>


Schizophrenia: Psy11 >>

incl. catatonia.


Schizophrenia-like Disorders: Psy13 >>

incl. brief psychotic disorder, delusional disorder (incl. erotomania, psychose passionnelle, Clerambault syndrome, old maid's insanity, conjugal paranoia, Othello syndrome, pathological / morbid jealousy, monosymptomatic hypochondriasis, Capgras syndrome, Fregoli syndrome, Cotard syndrome), shared psychotic disorder (s. folie deux), schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder, symbiotic psychosis, substance-induced psychotic disorder.



Mood (s. Affective) disorders

Mood (s. Affective) Disorders: Psy17 >>

incl. major depressive disorder, melancholia, suicide, dysthymic disorder, bipolar i disorder (s. classic manic-depression), bipolar ii disorder, cyclothymic disorder, seasonal affective disorder.

depression in dying patient: 4807 >>


Antidepressants s. Thymoleptics: Psy15 >>

incl. tricyclic TCA (imipramine, desipramine, amitriptyline, nortriptyline, protriptyline, doxepin, trimipramine, clomipramine, amoxapine, maprotiline), monoamine oxidase inhibitors MAOI (iproniazid, tranylcypromine, phenelzine, isocarboxazid, moclobemide, Befloxatone, deprenyl), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRI (fluoxetine, paroxetine, fluvoxamine, sertraline, citalopram, escitalopram, trazodone, nefazodone), selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors SSNRI (venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine), dopamine-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (bupropion), other antidepressants (mirtazapine, St. John's wort, buspirone).


Mood stabilizers: Psy15 >>

incl. lithium carbonate, anticonvulsants.



Substance-related disorders

Alcohol: Psy21 >>

incl. minor alcohol withdrawal (“shakes”, hangover), delirium tremens (severe alcohol withdrawal), alcohol withdrawal seizures ("rum fits"), alcohol hallucinosis, chronic alcoholism, disulfiram, naltrexone, nalmefene, acamprosate, topiramate, alcoholic dementia, alcoholic cerebellar degeneration, alcoholic myopathy, alcoholic neuropathy, Korsakoff psychosis, Wernicke encephalopathy, fetal alcohol syndrome.


Substance-related Disorders: Psy23 >>

incl. controlled substances, substance use disorders, substance dependence (tolerance, withdrawal / abstinence), substance abuse, opioids, methadone, lofexidine, buprenorphine, l-α-acetylmethadol s. laam, levomethadyl acetate, nicotine, smoking cessation, varenicline, amphetamines, cocaine, cannabis (marijuana, hashish, ganja, bhang), hallucinogens (psychotomimetics, psychedelics), lysergic acid diethylamide (lsd), psilocybin, mescaline, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (stp, dom), dimethyl-tryptamine (dmt), phencyclidine (pcp, "angel dust"), ketamine (“k”, special k), gamma hydroxybutyrate (ghb, “g”), inhalants, methylxanthines (caffeine, theobromine, theophylline, aminophylline).



Other disorders

Anxiety Disorders: Psy25 >>

incl. panic disorder, panic attack, generalized anxiety disorder (gad), obsessive-compulsive disorder (ocd), obsessions, compulsion, rituals, phobic disorders, school refusal (s. school phobia), posttraumatic stress disorder (ptsd), acute stress disorder (asd), adjustment disorder, situational anxiety, anxiety about death, anxiety about mutilation, loss of prowess, loss of attractiveness, anxiety about loss of self-esteem, separation anxiety, stranger anxiety, anxiety about loss of control, anxiety about dependency, anxiety about intimacy, anxiety about being punished, signal anxiety.


Sexual Disorders: Psy19 >>

incl. sexual identity, gender identity, gender role, sexual orientation, libido, masturbation, homosexuality, promiscuity / hypersexuality, sexual dysfunction (hypoactive sexual desire disorder, Gastaut-Geschwind syndrome, sexual aversion disorder, female sexual arousal disorder, inhibited female orgasm, inhibited male orgasm, premature ejaculation, dyspareunia, vaginismus), paraphilias (exhibitionism, fetishism, voyeurism, frotteurism, pedophilia, sexual masochism, sexual sadism, telephone scatologia, necrophilia, zoophilia), gender identity disorders (transsexualism), premenstrual dysphoric disorder (premenstrual syndrome [pms], late luteal phase dysphoric disorder).


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Psy27 >>

incl. aprosexia, methylphenidate, dexmethylphenidate, dextroamphetamine, mixed amphetamine salts, pemoline, atomoxetine, lisdexamfetamine dimesylate.


Autistic Spectrum Disorders (s. Pervasive Developmental Disorders): Psy29 >>

incl. autistic disorder (autism), Asperger disorder, Rett disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, PDD not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS).


Learning Disabilities: Psy31 >>

incl. dyslexia, developmental language disorder (dysphasia), phonologic dyslexia, surface dyslexia, dysgraphia, dysorthographia, poor handwriting, dyscalculia, ageometria, anarithmia, dysnomia.


Mental Retardation: Psy33 >>


Personality Disorders: Psy35 >>

incl. type a personality, paranoid personality, schizoid personality, schizotypal personality, antisocial personality, borderline personality, histrionic personality, narcissistic personality, avoidant personality, dependent personality, obsessive-compulsive personality.


Somatoform (s. Psychosomatic) Disorders: Psy37 >>

incl. sick role, somatization disorder, conversion disorder (s. hysteria), mass hysteria (epidemic hysteria), body dysmorphic disorder (s. dysmorphophobia), hypochondriasis, (somatoform, s. psychogenic) pain disorder, factitious disorder, Münchhausen syndrome, Münchhausen syndrome by proxy (s. factitious disorder not otherwise specified), malingering, placebo response.


Eating Disorders: Psy39 >>

incl. anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, pica, infant rumination disorder, failure to thrive.


Elimination (Toileting) Disorders: Psy41 >>

incl. enuresis, encopresis.


Disruptive Behavioral Disorders: Psy43 >>

incl. oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder.


Impulse Control Disorders: Psy45 >>

incl. intermittent explosive disorder (s. episodic dyscontrol syndrome), kleptomania, pyromania, pyrolagnia, trichotillomania, trichophagy, pathological gambling.


Dissociative Disorders: Psy47 >>

incl. dissociative amnesia, depersonalization disorder, dissociative fugue, dissociative identity disorder (s. multiple personality disorder).


Violence: Psy49 >>

incl. bullying, family (domestic) violence – spousal abuse.


Uncertain Syndromes: Psy51 >>

incl. Gulf War syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome (idiopathic environmental intolerance), chronic fatigue syndrome.




Rx. Treatment modalities

Drugs >>

Radiotherapy, Interventional Radiology >>




ABNS (American Board of Neurological Surgery) exams

Quick Read on the morning of oral exam >>


Medications in Neurosurgery (brief summary): Rx0 >>


Benzodiazepines: Rx1 >>

incl. chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, flurazepam, clonazepam, clobazam, clorazepate, halazepam, prazepam, nitrazepam, quazepam, lorazepam, temazepam, alprazolam, estazolam, oxazepam, triazolam, midazolam*, benzodiazepine antagonists (flumazenil), benzodiazepine overdose.

*also see 3905 (6) (intensive care)

Barbiturates: Rx2 >>

incl. phenobarbital, barbital, pentobarbital, secobarbital, amobarbital, hexobarbital, butabarbital, thiopental, barbiturate overdose.


Other Sedatives-Anxiolytics-Hypnotics: Rx3 >>

incl. clomethiazole (s. chlormethiazole), ramelteon, buspirone, chloral hydrate, chloral alcoholate, meprobamate, chloral betaine, paraldehyde, glutethimide, ethanol (ethyl alcohol), dexmedetomidine, propofol, methocarbamol, zolpidem, zaleplon, zopiclone, eszopiclone.


Antibiotics: Inf1 >>




general principles of radiotherapy: 1711 (1-3) >> (oncology)


ABNS (American Board of Neurological Surgery) exams:

Quick Read on the morning of oral exam >>

Condensed review for written and oral exams >>


Radiotherapy: Rx11 >>, Onc3 >>

incl. external beam radiation therapy, hyperfractionation, accelerated fractionation, stereotactic radiation, stereotactic radiosurgery (gamma knife), brachytherapy (interstitial / implanted radiation therapy), radiocolloidal solutions, transient radiation leukoencephalopathy, somnolence syndrome, transient radiation myelopathy, radiation necrosis, diffuse white matter injury, radiation myelopathy, radiation-induced vasculopathy, radiation optic neuropathy, radiation-induced neuropathy.


Interventional neuroradiology: D61 >>


Focused Ultrasound (s. transcranial MR-guided FUS, MRgFUS): Rx15 >>




S. Symptoms, Signs, Syndromes

Language, Speech >>

Memory, Learning >>

Dementias >>

Delirium >>

Sensory Disorders, Pain >>

Headache >>

Consciousness, Arousal, Awareness >>

Sleep, Alertness, Circadian Rhythms >>




Intracranial Calcification: S70 >>


Neurosarcoidosis: S72 >>

Condensed review for ABNS written and oral exams >>



Language, Speech

ABNS (American Board of Neurological Surgery) exams:

Condensed review for written and oral exams >>


physiology: S1 >>, A143 >>

language disorders: S2 >>, D1 >>

incl. aphasia, auditory aphasia (s. word deafness, auditory verbal agnosia), alexia (s. visual alexia, sensory alexia, visual aphasia, word blindness, alexia without agraphia), agraphia, aphemia (s. little Broca aphasia, cortical anarthria, speech apraxia), aprosody.

speech disorders: S3 >>

incl. dysphonia, dysarthria, mutism, phonic tics & vocalizations, reiterative speech disturbances (echolalia, palilalia, logoclonia, stutter).



Memory & Learning

ABNS (American Board of Neurological Surgery) exams:

Condensed review for written and oral exams >>


memory physiology: S5 >>

memory testing: D1 >>

amnesias: S6 >>

incl. age-associated memory impairment, Korsakoff syndrome, transient global amnesia, factitious [psychogenic] amnesia.



Dementia (s. Chronic Organic Brain syndrome)

ABNS (American Board of Neurological Surgery) exams:

Condensed review for written and oral exams >>


general: S10 >>

cortical dementias: S11 >>

incl. Alzheimer disease (drugs - tacrine, donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, memantine), Pick disease [frontotemporal dementia], ALS-dementia complex.

other dementias: S12 >>

incl. diffuse Lewy body disease, vascular dementia (multi-infarct dementia, Binswanger disease).

alcoholic dementia: Psy21 >>



Delirium (s. Acute Organic Brain syndrome, Acute Confusional state)

general: S15 >>

in dying patient: 4807 >>


Various Encephalopathies: S17 >>      

incl. posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), s. reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS).

hypertensive encephalopathy: 1349a >>



Sensory Disorders, Pain

ABNS (American Board of Neurological Surgery) exams:

Vignettes >>

Quick Read on the morning of oral exam >>

Condensed review for written and oral exams >>



Pain: S20 >>, A49 (2) >>

incl. nociceptive & neuropathic pain, hyperalgesia, allodynia, referred pain, sensitization of C-polymodal nociceptors, triple cold syndrome, central post-stroke syndrome (s. thalamic pain syndrome, Dejerine-Roussy syndrome), pain asymbolia, phantom limb pain, post-herpetic neuralgia, pain of spinal cord injury, cancer and terminal pain, complex regional pain syndromes (reflex sympathetic dystrophy, causalgia, shoulder-hand syndrome);

drugs (ziconotide, intrathecal alcohol);

physical therapy (infrared heat, hot packs, paraffin bath, hydrotherapy, diathermy, acupuncture, mechanotherapy, cervical traction, massage, cold);

electrical stimulation (incl. TENS), deep brain stimulation;

surgical procedures (rhizotomy, anterolateral cordotomy, commissural myelotomy, mesencephalic tractotomy, thalamotomy, hypophysectomy, stereotactic frontolimbic disconnections, drez [dorsal root entry zone] lesioning, sympathectomy, neurectomy).


Opioids: S21 >>, S20 >>, A4b >>

incl. opium, opiates, opioids, morphine, meperidine, methadone, fentanyl, sufentanil, alfentanil, remifentanil, heroin, hydromorphone, oxymorphone, levorphanol, codeine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, propoxyphene, diphenoxylate, tramadol, tapentadol, pentazocine, buprenorphine, nalorphine, nalbuphine, butorphanol, dezocine, naloxone, naltrexone, nalmefene, methylnaltrexone.


Other Sensory Disorders: S22 >>

incl. hypesthesia, hyperesthesia, paresthesia, dysesthesia.

psychogenic sensory disorders: D1 >>




general: S24 >>

incl. International Headache Society (IHS) classification,


Migraine: S25 >>

incl. cortical spreading depression (CSD) of Leão, teichopsia (s. fortification spectrum), status migrainosus, migraine with aura (classic migraine), migraine without aura, complicated migraine, basilar migraine, confusional migraine, hemiplegic migraine, ophthalmoplegic migraine, retinal migraine, abdominal migraine (s. cyclic vomiting syndrome), carotidynia (s. facial migraine), migrainous accompaniments (s. migraine equivalents), transformed migraine, malignant migraine, migralepsy, rebound headache

treatment: selective 5-HT1 agonists – triptans (sumatriptan, zolmitriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, almotriptan, frovatriptan, eletriptan), 5-HT1 agonists - ergot alkaloids (ergotamine, dihydroergotamine), Fiorinal, Treximet, feverfew (MigreLief)

prophylaxis: methysergide, cyproheptadine.


Tension-Type Headache (TTH): S26 >>


Cluster Headache, Chronic Paroxysmal Hemicrania, Hemicrania Continua: S27 >>


Other Headaches: S28 >>

incl. chronic daily headache, sexual headache, benign cough & exertional headache, cervicogenic headache & occipital neuralgia, hypnic headache.



Consciousness, Arousal, Awareness

ABNS (American Board of Neurological Surgery) exams:

Condensed review for written and oral exams >>


general: S30 >>

incl. coma, stupor, obtundation, lethargy, sopor, drowsiness, psychogenic unresponsiveness, Glasgow coma scale, Glasgow-Liege scale, sedation scale, children coma scales, “doll’s eyes” (s. oculocephalic, oculogyric, cervico-ocular) reflex, oculovestibular reflex (caloric stimulation).

vegetative state: S32 >>

brain death: S34 >>



Sleep, Alertness, Circadian Rhythms

physiology: D27 >>

GENERAL (sleep disorders): S40 >>

infant sleep disorders: Ped11 >>

Insomnias: S42 >>

Excessive Daytime Somnolence: S44 >>

incl. Epworth sleepiness scale, narcolepsy (drugs – modafinil, armodafinil, sodium oxybate), cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic & hypnopompic hallucinations, idiopathic (primary) hypersomnia, Kleine-Levin syndrome, sleep apnea, upper airway resistance syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder (s. nocturnal myoclonus), restless legs syndrome.

Parasomnias: S46 >>

incl. sleep terrors (s. pavor nocturnus), sleepwalking (s. somnambulism), confusional arousals, hypnic jerks (s. sleep starts), rhythmic movement disorder, sleep talking (s. somniloquy), nocturnal leg cramps, rem sleep behavioral disorder, nightmares, hypnogenic (s. nocturnal) paroxysmal dystonia, sleep bruxism, sleep enuresis.

Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders (s. Chronobiological Disorders): S48 >>

incl. time zone change (jet lag) syndrome, shift work sleep disorder, delayed sleep phase syndrome, advanced sleep phase syndrome, non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder, irregular sleep-wake pattern.




ABNS (American Board of Neurological Surgery) exams:

Condensed review for written and oral exams >>


Intracranial Pressure: S50 >>

intracranial hypertension: S50 >>

incl. Cushing reflex, ICP monitoring (ventriculostomy, subarachnoid bolts, intraparenchymal devices), ICP waveforms, mannitol (also see S52 >>), pentobarbital coma, Lund protocol.

cerebral edema (vasogenic, cytotoxic, interstitial-hydrocephalic): S52 >>

in brain tumors: Onc1 >>, Onc3 >>

brain herniation: S54 >>

incl. central (s. downward transtentorial) herniation, uncal (s. lateral mass) herniation, Kernohan notch phenomenon, Duret hemorrhages, cingulate (s. subfalcine) herniation, cerebellar tonsillar herniation, upward transtentorial herniation, herniation after lumbar puncture, transcalvarial herniation.

idiopathic intracranial hypertension (s. pseudotumor cerebri): S56 >>

intracranial hypotension, low pressure headache: S58 >>

incl. post-LP headache (also see Op3 >>), orthostatic headache, caffeine sodium benzoate, epidural blood patch.


Hydrocephalus (s. Hydrocephaly): S60 >>

incl. X-linked aqueductal stenosis, Macewen sign, “setting sun” sign, benign pericerebral effusion.

CSF diversion procedures (ventricular shunting): S60 >>

incl. third ventriculostomy, septostomy, ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting, ventriculoatrial  (VA) shunting, ventriculopleural shunting, Torkildsen (s. internal) shunts, lumboperitoneal shunts, transplantation of vascularized omentum, slit ventricle syndrome.

normal-pressure hydrocephalus: S62 >>


CSF leaks: S64 >>

incl. rhinorrhea, otorrhea.




Spin. Spinal disorders

Anatomic localization of motor symptoms, UMN & LMN lesions: Mov3 >>

Anatomic localization of sensory symptoms: S22 >>

Radiculopathy: PN1 >>

Spinal imaging: D70 >>

Spinal angiography: D61 >>

Infections of spinal cord and vertebrae: Inf3 >>, Inf5 >>, Inf7 >>

Tumors of spinal cord and vertebrae: Onc50 >>, Onc54 >>

Radiation myelopathy: Rx11 >>

Surgical Techniquessee “Spinal Surgical Techniques” >>


ABNS (American Board of Neurological Surgery) exams:

Vignettes >>

Quick Read on the morning of oral exam >>

Condensed review for written and oral exams >>



Spinal Syndromes (GENERAL): Spin1 >>, A50 (4-6) >>

incl. spinal structures affected in various disorders, spinal cord transection, spinal shock, spinal cord hemisection (Brown-Sequard syndrome), anterior 2/3 transection, extramedullary cord compression, Flatau law, central cord syndrome, cauda equina syndrome, conus medullaris syndrome, spinal complications, paroxysmal autonomic hyperreflexia (s. autonomic dysreflexia), spinal prognosis & rehabilitation, spinal cord independence measure (SCIM).

neurogenic bladder: 2590a >>

urinary incontinence: 2590 >>

spinal cord compression: Spin1 >>

treatment: Onc56 >>


Syringomyelia, hydromyelia, syrinx, syringobulbia: Spin5 >>

posttraumatic syrinx (s. traumatic syringomyelia): TrS5 >>


Transverse Myelopathy, transverse myelitis: Spin7 >>

incl. idiopathic acute transverse myelitis, surfer's myelopathy.


Degenerative Disc Disease: Spin11 >>

incl. disc bulge, disc herniation, disc protrusion, disc extrusion, disc rupture, Schmorl nodule, Spurling test, sciatica, percutaneous nucleotomy, papain chemonucleolysis, discectomy, foraminotomy, laminotomy, laminectomy, spinal fusion, artificial disc implantation.


Spondylosis: Spin13 >>

incl. pseudoclaudication (s. neurogenic intermittent claudication), ossification of posterior longi­tudinal ligament (OPLL), diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (s. diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, Forestier disease).


Spinal Stenosis: Spin15 >>

incl. laminoplasty, suspension laminotomy.


Spondylolysis, Spondylolisthesis: Spin17 >>

incl. Meyerding's classification.


Back pain (lumbago), Cervical Pain: Spin19 >>

incl. back exercises, back hygiene.


Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS, Charcot's disease, Lou Gehrig's disease): Spin21 >>

incl. El Escorial World Federation of Neurology criteria, riluzole.


Spinal Muscular Atrophies (SMA, progressive spinal muscular atrophy, progressive spinal atrophy): Spin23 >>

incl. Werdnig-Hoffman disease, Kugelberg-Welander disease, Kennedy's disease, Fazio-Londe disease, adult Tay-Sachs disease (hexosaminidase A deficiency).


Familial Spastic Paraplegias (s. hereditary spastic paraplegias), primary lateral sclerosis: Spin25 >>


Other Spinal Disorders: Spin27 >>

incl. stiff-person syndrome (s. stiff-man syndrome, Moersch-Woltman syndrome), epidural lipomatosis, lumbar adhesive arachnoiditis, progressive necrotizing myelopathy, ventral cord herniation, arachnoid web

Foix-Alajouanine syndrome: Vas42 >>


Scoliosis: Spin29 >>




Tr. Trauma

Head Trauma >>

Facial Trauma >>

Spinal, Anterior Neck Trauma >>

Nerve Trauma >>




Head Trauma / TBI

Procedures for cranial trauma >>

ABNS (American Board of Neurological Surgery) exams:

Vignettes >>

Quick Read on the morning of oral exam >>

Condensed review for written and oral exams >>


general: TrH1 >>

incl. concussion, diffuse axonal injury (DAI), centripetal theory of A.K. Ommaya and T.A. Gennarelli, coup / contrecoup contusion and laceration, Waddell triad, heterotopic ossification, neurogenic pulmonary edema, encephalomalacia, traumatic hemiatrophy, pneumocele (s. pneumocephalus – see also S64 >>), postconcussion (s. posttraumatic) syndrome, functional independence measure (FIM), Glasgow outcome scale (GOS), disability rating scale (DRS), chronic traumatic encephalopathy (s. dementia pugilistica, punch-drunk syndrome), second impact syndrome.

posttraumatic CSF leaks: S64 >>

posttraumatic meningitis: Inf3 >>


PEDIATRIC Head Injury: TrH20 >>

incl. “shaken baby” syndrome.

birth trauma: Ped9 >>


Skull Fractures: TrH5 >>

incl. sutural diastasis (s. diastatic fracture), ping-pong fractures, leptomeningeal cyst (s. growing fracture).


Carotid-Cavernous Fistula: TrH9 >>

incl. traumatic AV fistula.


Epidural Hematoma: TrH11 >>

incl. emergency exploratory burr holes (diagnostic burr holes), clot removal operation (incl. “question mark” skin flap, “horse shoe” skin flap).


Subdural Hematoma: TrH13 >>

incl. hematoma evacuation, SDH in infants, subdural tap, nonepileptic, stereotypical, and intermittent symptoms (NESIS)


Subdural Hygroma (s. Subdural Effusion): TrH15 >>



Facial Trauma



Facial Trauma (frontal, orbital): TrH27 >>

incl. orbital rim fractures, orbital floor fracture (incl. “blow-out” fracture), orbital apex fractures, orbital roof (blow-in) fractures, frontal sinus fractures.


Facial Trauma (nasal, maxillary, zygomatic): TrH29 >>

incl. maxillofacial (middle face) fractures, Le Fort type i fracture (s. Guérin’s fracture, dentoalveolar dysjunction), Le Fort type ii fracture (s. pyramidal fracture of mid-face), Le Fort type iii fracture (s. craniofacial dysjunction), zygomatic fracture (zygomatic arch fracture, zygomaticomaxillary (tripod, trimalar) fracture), antral packing, soft-tissue injuries of nose (septal hematoma), nasal fracture, naso-orbital injuries, nasofrontoethmoidal complex fracture.


Facial Trauma (mandibular, dental): TrH31 >>

incl. mandibular fracture, temporomandibular joint dislocation, dental trauma (tooth fracture, tooth avulsion, tooth subluxation, tooth intrusion).



Spinal Trauma

Surgical Techniquessee “Spinal Surgical Techniques” >>


ABNS (American Board of Neurological Surgery) exams:

Vignettes >>

Quick Read on the morning of oral exam >>

Condensed review for written and oral exams >>


Vertebral Column Injury (GENERAL): TrS5 >>


Vertebral Column Injury (SPECIFIC INJURIES): TrS9 >>

incl. compression (wedge) fracture, vertebroplasty, kyphoplasty, teardrop fracture, clay shoveler's fracture, transverse ligament disruption, atlantoaxial dislocation, Grisel syndrome, odontoid fracture, atlas fracture, atlantooccipital dislocation, chance ("seat belt") fracture, facet dislocation / perch, fracture of transverse process, “slice” fracture-dislocation (s. torsional injury), posterior neural arch fracture, hangman’s fracture, whiplash injury (s. cervical sprain, hyperextension injury), burst fracture, Jefferson fracture, pathologic fractures.


Spinal Cord Injury: TrS5 >>

incl. posttraumatic myelomalacia, burning hands syndrome, American spinal injury association (ASIA) system, posttraumatic syrinx (s. traumatic syringomyelia), tongs (Gardner-Wells tongs, Crutchfield tongs), halo fixation.


Anterior Neck Injury: TrS21 >>

incl. carotid trauma, laryngotracheal trauma, esophageal trauma, pharyngeal trauma, strangulation (hanging).



Nerve Trauma

Peripheral NS trauma: PN7 >>

incl. neurapraxia, axonotmesis, neurotmesis, traumatic neuroma.




Vas. Vascular disorders

Cerebral vascular disorders >>

Spinal vascular disorders >>


ABNS (American Board of Neurological Surgery) exams:

Vignettes: open vascular >> endovascular >>

Quick Read on the morning of oral exam >>

Condensed review for written and oral exams:

aneurysms, SAH >>

other >>


Cerebral vascular disorders

stroke definitions (s. cerebrovascular accident, brain apoplexy, brain attack): Vas1 >>

incl. stroke in pregnancy.

transient ischemic attack (TIA): Vas1 >>, Vas3 >>, Vas7 >>

reversible ischemic neurologic deficit (RIND): Vas1 >>


Ischemic Stroke:

etiology, pathophysiology, pathology, clinical features, diagnosis, special forms: Vas3 >>

incl. ischemic penumbra, pseudolaminar necrosis, reperfusion, cerebral autolysis, embolic stroke, fat embolism, air embolism, thrombotic stroke, lacunar stroke, état lacunaire (état criblé), miliary (Charcot-Bouchard) aneurysms, watershed (border zone) infarcts, completed stroke, stroke in evolution (s. progressive stroke, unstable stroke), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), Modified Rankin Scale (mRS), brachial syndrome, frontal opercular syndrome, Anton syndrome, pure hemiparesis, pure hemisensory stroke, sensorimotor stroke, ataxic hemiparesis, clumsy hand – dysarthria, dense MCA sign, stroke in pediatric / young patients, Dyke-Davidoff syndrome, crossed cerebellar diaschisis, hypoxic-anoxic injury


management, prevention, rehabilitation of ischemic stroke: Vas5 >>

incl. thrombolysis, mechanical thrombolysis / thrombectomy (mechanical embolus removal in cerebral ischemia (MERCI) system, AngioJet system, Latis laser device, endovascular photo acoustic recanalization (EPAR) laser, EKOS ultrasound thrombolytic infusion catheter), reperfusion injury, antiaggregants, anticoagulants, neuroprotective agents (dextromethorphan, selfotel, aptiganel, agent GV150526, magnesium, nalmefene, lubeluzole, clomethiazole, tirilazad, albumin, NXY-059, enlimomab, Hu23F2G, abciximab, citicoline, Fiblast).


carotid artery stenosis: Vas7 >>

incl. amaurosis fugax (transient monocular blindness), carotid endarterectomy, carotid angioplasty & stenting, extracranial-intracranial bypass, superficial tem­poral to middle cerebral artery anastomosis (STA-MCA), luxury perfusion syndrome, Eagle syndrome.


vertebrobasilar ischemia: Vas9 >>

incl. surgical vertebral artery reconstruction, subclavian steal, rotational vertebral artery occlusion syndrome (s. bow hunter's syndrome), cerebroselective Ca antagonists (cinnarizine, flunarizine).



Vascular Dissection (carotid, vertebral): Vas11 >>

carotid trauma (blunt, penetrating): TrS21 >>


Cerebral Venous Thrombosis: Vas13 >>

incl. suppurative intracranial thrombophlebitis, venous sinus thrombosis, empty δ sign, dense triangle sign, cord sign, thrombectomy.


Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ICH): Vas20 >>

incl. intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), cerebral amyloid angiopathy, hematoma drainage, CLEAR trial, MISTIE trial.

traumatic ICH: TrH1 >>


Aneurysms, Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH): Vas25 >>

incl. false aneurysms (pseudoaneurysms), saccular (“berry”) aneurysms, fusiform (dolichoectatic) aneurysms, mycotic (infectious) aneurysms, dissecting aneurysms, infundibuli, vascular loops, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, Hunt & Hess scale, World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) Scale, Fisher grade, vasospasm, rebleeding, nimodipine, clazosentan, HHH therapy, surgical clipping, wrapping, trapping, Hunterian principle (proximal ligation of parent artery), aneurysm excision, endovascular coiling (Guglielmi detachable coil).

surgical aneurysm treatment (technique): Op350 >>

traumatic aneurysms, traumatic SAH: TrH1 >>


Intracranial Vascular Malformations: Vas30 >>

incl. arteriovenous malformations (AVM), Wyburn-Mason syndrome (s. Bonnet-Dechaume-Blanc syndrome), cerebral proliferative angiopathy, superselective Wada testing, Spetzler-Martin grading system, cavernous angioma (s. cavernous hemangioma, cavernoma), capillary telangiectasia, developmental venous anomaly (s. venous angioma), dural arteriovenous malformation, vein of Galen malformation (ectasia / aneurysm), sinus pericranii.


Cerebral Vasculopathies: Vas35 >>

incl. fibromuscular dysplasia, moyamoya disease (basal occlusive disease with telangiectasia), encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis, cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), cerebral vasculitis, granulomatous angiitis of nervous system (GANS, primary angiitis of CNS, intracranial granulomatous arteritis, noninfectious granulomatous angiitis with predilection for CNS), reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes (RCVS)

hypertensive encephalopathy: 1349a >>



Spinal vascular disorders

Spinal Ischemic Stroke: Vas40 >>


Spinal Hemorrhages: Vas42 >>

incl. hematomyelia (spinal cord hematoma), spinal SAH, spinal epidural hemorrhage, spinal subdural hemorrhage.


Spinal Vascular Malformations: Vas42 >>

incl. spinal dural AV fistula (s. radiculomeningeal fistula), Foix-Alajouanine syndrome (s. subacute necrotizing myelitis, angiodysgenetic necrotizing myelopathy), telangiectasias, cavernous malformations, spinal AVMs, Cobb syndrome (s. cutaneomeningospinal angiomatosis).




Veg. Vegetative (Autonomic NS) disorders

general (classification, etiologies, clinical features, instrumental diagnosis): Veg1 >>

incl. gustatory sweating and flushing, Pourfour du Petit syndrome, harlequin syndrome, paroxysmal autonomic hyperactivity, congenital insensitivity to pain and anhidrosis.


Disorders: Veg3 >>

incl. pure autonomic failure (PAF, s. chronic postganglionic autonomic insufficiency), Bradbury-Eggleston syndrome, dopamine-β-hydroxylase deficiency, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS), idiopathic orthostatic hypotension, hypothalamic syndromes.

autonomic dysreflexia (s. paroxysmal autonomic hyperreflexia): Spin1 >>





























Direct Links to Pages

A. Neuroscience Basics (anatomy, histology, physiology, development)




A1-2. General Scheme of Nervous System



A3. Neuron



A4a. Synapsis



A4b. Neurochemistry



A5. Pathologic Reactions of Neurons



A6. Glia, part I



A6 (1-2). Glia, part II



A7 (1-4). Myelin



A7 (5). Myelination Timetable



A8. Blood-brain barrier (BBB)



A13 (1a). General Development of nervous system



A13 (5a). Spinal Cord Development



A15. PNS anatomy, histology, physiology



A17. Sensory Receptors



A18. Reflex



A20 (10). Ulnar Nerve



A20 (12). Median Nerve



A22 (8). Peroneal Nerve



A34. Autonomic Neurochemistry



A35. Autonomic Nervous System Pharmacology



A40. Meninges



A46 (5a). Spinal Cord - somatic motor system (motor units)



A50 (2b). Rubrospinal Tract



A50 (2c). Vestibulospinal Tract



A55 (8). Corticonuclear (corticobulbar) fibers



A59. Brain Stem LESIONS



A60. Muscle Coordination



A61. Postural Control



A65 (1-4). Cranial Nerves (general)



A70 (1-6). CN5



A70 (3b) Skull foramina for trigeminal branches (in face)



A72 (1-4). CN7



A73. Topographic Anatomy of CN7



A74 (1-3). CN9



A75 (1-4). CN10



A76 (1-2). CN11



A77 (1-2). CN12



A79. Taste



A103. Basal Ganglia Physiology



A110. Diencephalon



A121. Hypothalamus Function



A135 (8a-b). Olfactory Physiology



A136. Nucleus basalis of Meynert



A137. Amygdala



A138. Hippocampus



A139. Instinctual Behavior, Emotions



A155 (3-4). Cortical Sensory Physiology



A201. Embryogenesis of CNS blood vessels



A203. Blood Supply of SPINAL CORD



A205. Blood Supply of BRAIN (arteries)



A207. Blood Supply of BRAIN (veins)



A211. Cerebrovascular PHYSIOLOGY





CN. Cranial Neuropathies




CN0. Multiple Cranial Nerve Lesions


individual cranial nerve disorders



CN1. Olfactory Disorders



CN5. Trigeminal Nerve Disorders



CN7. Facial Nerve Disorders



CN9-10. Glossopharyngeus and Vagus Disorders



CN11-12. Accessory and Hypoglossus Disorders




D. Diagnostics



physical examination



D1. Neurologic Examination



D1ear. Otologic Examination



D1eye. Ophthalmologic Examination



D2. Mini-Mental Status examination (Folstein)



D3. Mini-Mental Status examination (Halstead-Reitan)



D5. Pediatric Neurologic Examination



D10. Mental Status examination



D12. Neuropsychological testing



D19. Principles of Instrumental Neurodiagnosis





D20. EMG



D22. Nerve Conduction Studies



D25. Evoked Potentials



D27. EEG, Alertness, Sleep



D29. Magnetoencephalography


biopsies, csf



D30. Muscle Biopsy and Serum Markers



D32. Nerve Biopsy



D34. Brain Biopsy



D40. Cerebrospinal Fluid





D45. Neuroimaging (general)



D47. X-ray



D49. CT



D51. MRI



D53. Metabolic Neuroimaging (PET, MRS)



D55. Pneumoencephalography



D57. Ultrasound


Neurovascular Examination



D60. Neurovascular Examination (general)



D61. Neuroangiography



D62. Doppler






D66. rCBF Examination (xenon, SPECT, fMRI)



D68. Carotid Occlusion Studies


Spinal Examination



D70. Spinal Imaging




Dem. Demyelinating Disorders



demyelination of PNS



Dem1. PNS demyelination


demyelination of CNS



Dem3. CNS demyelination (general)



Dem5. Multiple Sclerosis



Dem7. MS-related Disorders



Dem9. CNS complications of Viral Infections and Vaccines



Dem11. Leukodystrophies



Dem13. Metabolic Demyelinations




Dev. Developmental Disorders




Dev1. Congenital Anomalies (general)



Dev3. Neural Tube Disorders



Dev5. Spinal Cord Anomalies



Dev7. Brain Anomalies



Dev9. Cranial & Vertebral Anomalies



Dev15. Cranial Remodeling (surgical techniques)




E. Epilepsy & Seizures




E1. Epilepsy

Definitions, Epidemiology, Etiology, Pathophysiology, Classifications, Clinical Features, Diagnosis



E3. Antiepileptic Drugs



E5. Treatment Principles of Epilepsy



E7. Status Epilepticus



E9. Epileptic Syndromes



E11. Surgical Treatment of Epilepsy



E13. Intracranial Electrodes, Cortical Mapping



E15. Temporal Lobectomy



E17. Multiple Subpial Transections



E19. Hemispherectomy



E21. Corpus Callosotomy



E23. Vagal Nerve Stimulation (VNS)



E25. RNS (Neuropace)




Ear. Otology



Basic Otology



Ear12a. Hair cell function



Ear21. Vestibular Physiology



Ear23. Auditory Pathways



Ear25. Auditory Physiology


Clinical Otology



Ear30. Instrumental Auditory Examinations



Ear32. Hearing Loss, Deafness



Ear34. Tinnitus, Vertigo, Earache



Ear36. Inner Ear Disorders



Ear38. Middle Ear Disorders



Ear40. External Ear Disorders



Ear42. Temporal Bone Anomalies




Eye. Ophthalmology



Basic Ophthalmology



Eye36a. Retinal Physiology



Eye55. Eye Optics



Eye57. Visual Pathways and Cortex


Clinical Ophthalmology



Eye59. Ocular Symptoms and Signs



Eye60. Instrumental Eye Examination



Eye61. Drugs in Ophthalmology



Eye62. Optic Nerve and Visual Pathways Disorders



Eye63. Retinal Disorders



Eye64. Gaze and Autonomic Innervation Disorders



Eye65. Blindness, Amblyopia



Eye66. Eyelid Disorders



Eye68. Cataract



Eye70. Glaucoma



Eye72. Refractive Errors, Contact Lenses



Eye74. Uveitis



Eye76. Corneal Disorders



Eye78. Conjunctival and Scleral Disorders



Eye80. Vitreous Disorders



Eye82. Lacrimal Disorders



Eye84. Orbital Disorders



Eye86. Eye Trauma



Eye88. Red Eye




Inf. Infections




Inf1. Infections of Nervous System (general)



Inf3. Meningitis



Inf5. Abscess, Empyema



Inf7. Osteomyelitis (skull, spine)



Inf9. Encephalitis



Inf11. Parasitic Infections of Nervous System




Met. Metabolic Disorders




Met1. Metabolic Myopathies



Met5. Mitochondrial Disorders



Met7. Degenerative CNS Diseases



Met9. Hemorrhagic Shock and Encephalopathy Syndrome




Mov. Movement Disorders, Ataxias



General Aspects of Movement Disorders



Mov1. Extrapyramidal Movement Disorders (general)



Mov3. UMN (pyramidal) & LMN Disorders (general)



Mov5. Cerebellar Disorders (general)



Mov7. Gait Disorders, Falls, Immobility (general)


Hypokinetic Disorders



Mov10. Hypokinetic Disorders 1 (parkinsonism)



Mov11. Hypokinetic Disorders 2 (secondary parkinsonism)



Mov12. Hypokinetic Disorders 3 (parkinsonism-plus)


Hyperkinetic Disorders



Mov20. Hyperkinetic Disorders 1 (chorea)



Mov21. Hyperkinetic Disorders 2 (dystonia)



Mov22. Hyperkinetic Disorders 3 (tics, myoclonus, other)





Mov25. Drug-Induced Movement Disorders



Mov50. Ataxias




Mus. Muscular, Neuromuscular Disorders




Mus0. Neuromuscular Disorders (general)



Mus1. Myasthenia Gravis



Mus2. Other Neuromuscular Transmission Disorders

Congenital Myasthenias, Eaton-Lambert Syndrome



Mus5. Muscular Dystrophies



Mus7. Channelopathies

Myotonias, Periodic Paralysis



Mus9. Congenital Myopathies, Congenital Muscle Anomalies



Mus11. Rhabdomyolysis, Myoglobinuria, Toxic Myopathies




Onc. Oncology



General Aspects of Brain Tumors



Onc1. Brain Tumors (general)

Etiology, Genetics, Epidemiology, Pathology, Pathophysiology, Classification, Clinical Features, Diagnosis



Onc3. Brain Tumors (treatment)

Treatment Principles, Radiotherapy, Chemotherapy


Specific Brain Tumors



Onc10. Astrocytomas



Onc12. Oligodendrogliomas



Onc13. Oligoastrocytomas




Onc14. Ependymomas



Onc16. Choroid Plexus Tumors



Onc18. Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors



Onc20. Neuroblastic Tumors



Onc22. Neuronal and Mixed Tumors



Onc24. Vascular Tumors



Onc26. Pituitary Tumors, Apoplexy, Empty Sella



Onc28. Pineal Region Tumors



Onc29. Germ Cell Tumors



Onc30. Dermoid, Epidermoid, Cysts, Lipoma, Mucocele



Onc32. Brain Metastases



Onc34. Neoplastic Meningitis



Onc36. CNS Lymphomas



Onc38. Meningiomas



Onc40. Skull Tumors


Spinal Tumors



Onc42. Chordoma



Onc50. Intramedullary Spinal Tumors



Onc54. Intradural Extramedullary Spinal Tumors



Onc56. Extradural Spinal Tumors, Vertebral Tumors


Nerve Tumors



Onc60. Nerve Tumors (general)



Onc62. Schwannomas of Cranial Nerves



Onc64. Paragangliomas





Onc66. Neurological Paraneoplastic Syndromes




Op. Operative Techniques



CSF-related procedures



Op3. Lumbar Puncture



Op5. Other CSF Sampling Procedures

Cisternal (s. suboccipital) Puncture, Lateral Cervical Puncture, Ventricular Puncture



Op6. External Ventricular Drainage, ICP Monitoring



Op7. Spinal & Epidural Anesthesia



Op9. CSF Access Implantable Devices



Op10. CSF Shunting


General Aspects of Operative Neurousrgery



Op30. Neuronavigation



Op100. General Principles of Operative Neurosurgery



Op120. General Principles of Perioperative Neurosurgery



Op140. Surgical Instruments, Materials





Op210. Cervical Spine Surgery (operative techniques)



Op220. Thoracolumbosacral Spine Surgery (operative techniques)



Op230. Syringomyelia (operative techniques)



Op240. Cord Stimulators, Intrathecal Pumps (operative techniques)



Op250. Cord and Spine Developmental Anomalies (operative techniques)



Op260. Spinal Tumor Surgery (operative techniques)





Op300. Craniotomies



Op305. Transsphenoidal Pituitary Resection



Op310. Brain Biopsy



Op320. Cranial Trauma procedures



Op330. Cranioplasty



Op340. Brain Tumors (operative techniques)



Op345. Laser Ablation



Op350. Cerebrovascular (open techniques)



Op358. Temporal artery biopsy



Op360. Surgery for Movement Disorders, DBS


Nerves - Peripheral, Cranial



Op400. Cranial Nerves (techniques)



Op450. Peripheral Nerves (techniques)



Op460. Blockades of Peripheral Nerves


Non-neurosurgical (but used in neurosurgery)



Op900. Tracheostomy, Coniotomy



Op910. Vascular Access




Ped. Pediatrics




Ped1. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)



Ped3. Child Maltreatment (abuse, neglect)



Ped5. Developmental Delay (incl. Cerebral Palsy)



Ped7. Differential Diagnosis of Pediatric Neurodisorders



Ped9. Perinatal Period



Ped11. Infancy, Childhood, Adolescence



Ped13. Psychosocial Pediatrics




Pha. Phacomatoses (Neurocutaneous Disorders)




Pha1. Phacomatoses (general)



Pha3. Neurofibromatosis



Pha5. Tuberous Sclerosis



Pha7. Sturge-Weber syndrome




PN. Peripheral Neuropathies




PN1. Peripheral Neuropathies (general)



PN3. Hereditary Neuropathies



PN5. Compressive Neuropathies



PN7. Trauma of Peripheral Nerves



PN9. Plexopathies



PN11. Various Neuropathies




Psy. Psychiatry & Behavioral Science



General Aspects of Psychiatry



Psy1. Behavioral Science Basics



Psy3. Psychiatric Patient Examination



Psy5. Psychiatry (general topics)


Psychiatric Disorders



Psy9. Psychosis, Neuroleptics



Psy11. Schizophrenia



Psy13. Schizophrenia-like Disorders



Psy15. Antidepressants, Mood Stabilizers



Psy17. Mood (Affective) Disorders, Suicide



Psy19. Sexual Disorders



Psy21. Alcohol



Psy23. Substance-related Disorders



Psy25. Anxiety Disorders



Psy27. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder



Psy29. Autistic Spectrum Disorders (s. Pervasive Developmental Disorders)



Psy31. Learning Disabilities



Psy33. Mental Retardation



Psy35. Personality Disorders



Psy37. Somatoform Disorders



Psy39. Eating Disorders



Psy41. Elimination (Toileting) Disorders



Psy43. Disruptive Behavioral Disorders



Psy45. Impulse Control Disorders



Psy47. Dissociative Disorders



Psy49. Violence



Psy51. Uncertain Syndromes

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Gulf War Syndrome, Multiple Chemical Sensitivity




Rx. Treatment modalities






Rx1. Benzodiazepines



Rx2. Barbiturates



Rx3. Other Sedatives-Anxiolytics





Rx11. Radiotherapy for Neurodisorders




S. Symptoms, Signs, Syndromes



Language, Speech, Memory, Learning



S1. Language, Speech



S2. Language disorders



S3. Speech disorders



S5. Memory & Learning



S6. Amnesias



S8. Apraxia


Dementia, Delirium



S10. Dementia (Chronic Organic Brain Syndrome)



S11. Cortical Dementias (Alzheimer, Pick)



S12. Other Dementias (Lewy body, Vascular)



S15. Delirium (Acute Organic Brain Syndrome)



S17. Various Encephalopathies


Sensory Disorders, Pain



S20. Pain



S21. Opioids



S22. Sensory Disorders (sensory loss, paresthesias, dysesthesias)





S24. Headache (general)



S25. Migraine



S26. Tension-Type Headache



S27. Cluster Headache and Chronic Paroxysmal Hemicrania



S28. Other Headaches





S30. Alterations in Level of Consciousness, Coma



S32. Vegetative State



S34. Brain Death


Sleep Disorders



S40. Sleep Disorders (general)



S42. Insomnia



S44. Excessive Daytime Somnolence



S46. Parasomnias



S48. Circadian Rhythm Disorders


ICP, Cerebral Edema, Hydrocephalus



S50. Intracranial Hypertension (general)



S52. Cerebral Edema



S54. Brain Herniation



S56. Pseudotumor Cerebri



S58. Low Pressure Headache, Intracranial Hypotension



S60. Hydrocephalus (general)



S62. Normal-Pressure Hydrocephalus



S64. CSF Leaks





S70. Intracranial Calcification



S72. Neurosarcoidosis




Spin. Spinal Disorders




Spin1. Spinal Syndromes (general)

Spinal Structures Affected In Various Disorders, Anatomic Spinal Syndromes, Spinal Complications, Prognosis, Rehabilitation



Spin5. Syringomyelia



Spin7. Transverse Myelopathy



Spin11. Degenerative Disc Disease



Spin13. Spondylosis



Spin15. Spinal Stenosis



Spin17. Spondylolysis, Spondylolisthesis



Spin19. Back Pain, Neck Pain



Spin21. UMN and LMN diseases

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis



Spin23. LMN diseases

Spinal Muscular Atrophies



Spin25. UMN diseases

Familial Spastic Paraplegias, Primary Lateral Sclerosis



Spin27. Other Spinal Disorders

Stiff-Person Syndrome, Epidural Lipomatosis, Lumbar Adhesive Arachnoiditis, Progressive Necrotizing Myelopathy



Spin29. Scoliosis




Tr. Trauma



Head Trauma



TrH1. Head Injury, Traumatic Brain Injury



TrH5. Skull Fractures



TrH9. Carotid-Cavernous Fistula



TrH11. Epidural Hematoma



TrH13. Subdural Hematoma



TrH15. Subdural Hygroma



TrH20. Head Injury (pediatric)


Facial Trauma



TrH25. Facial Trauma (general)



TrH27. Facial Trauma (frontal, orbital)



TrH29. Facial Trauma (nasal, maxillary, zygomatic)



TrH31. Facial Trauma (mandibular, dental)


Spinal Trauma



TrS5. Vertebral Column Injury (general), Spinal Cord Injury



TrS9. Vertebral Column Injury (specific injuries)



TrS21. Anterior Neck Injury




Vas. Vascular Disorders



cerebral vascular disorders



Vas1. Stroke (general)

Definitions, Classification



Vas3. Ischemic Stroke

Etiology, Epidemiology, Pathology, Pathophysiology, Clinical Features, Diagnosis



Vas5. Ischemic Stroke

Treatment, Prevention



Vas7. Carotid Atherosclerotic Stenosis



Vas9. Vertebrobasilar Ischemia



Vas11. Vascular Dissection (carotid, vertebral)



Vas13. Cerebral Venous Thrombosis



Vas20. Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Intraventricular Hemorrhage



Vas25. Aneurysms, SAH



Vas30. Intracranial Vascular Malformations



Vas35. Cerebral Vasculopathies


Spinal Vascular Disorders



Vas40. Spinal Ischemic Stroke



Vas42. Spinal Hemorrhages, Spinal Vascular Malformations




Veg. Autonomic (Vegetative) NS Disorders




Veg1. Autonomic NS disorders (general)



Veg3. Autonomic NS disorders (specific)




###. Other – Topics pertinent to Neurosurgery




239 (11-14). Neurosyphilis



240 (6a). Neuroborreliosis



265 (1a). Reye syndrome



265 (7a). Measles Encephalitides



266. Slow Infections, Prion Diseases



270. HIV, AIDS (neurologic aspects)



738. Glycogenoses



750. Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders



1349a. Hypertensive Encephalopathy



1355. Coronary Artery Disease



1356. Heart Failure



1707a. Tumor Markers



2201. Surgical Asepsis, Antisepsis



2203. Surgical Infection



2205. Wounds



2207. Sutures



2209. Surgical Needles, Surgical Tubes



2210. Preoperative Period



2211. Postoperative Period



2215. Plastic Surgery



2217. Pressure Sores



2219. Burns



2221. Cold Injury



2229. Local Anesthetics



2516. ADH disorders



2590. Urinary Incontinence



2590a. Neurogenic Bladder



2738. Anterior Pituitary Disorders



2751. Diabetic Neurology



2777. Neurology of Heavy Metal Poisoning



3901. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation



3905. Anesthesia, Pain management



4800. Screening Tests (public health)



4801. Rehabilitation



Exam11. Examination Techniques - PEDIATRIC