A. Neuroscience Basics (anatomy, histology, physiology, development)

Cerebrum >>

Basal Motor Nuclei >>

Diencephalon >>

Brain Stem >>

Cerebellum >>

Cranial Nerves >>

Spinal Cord >>

Peripheral Nervous System >>

Visceral (Autonomic) Nervous System >>

 

 

general scheme of nervous system: A1-A2

histologic methods in neuroscience: A11 (1)

tracing nerve tracts: A11 (2)

 

neuron: A3 >>

incl. neurotrophins - NGF (nerve growth factor), BDNF (brain-derived growth factor), NT-3 (neurotrophin-3), NT-4/5 (neurotrophin-4/5).

 

nerve fibers: A3 >>

incl. nerve fiber types & properties, excitation & conduction (resting potential, action potential, electrotonic potentials or local response).

 

synapsis: A4a >>

incl. ephapse, semiphorins, neurophilins, postsynaptic electrical events (incl. EPSP, IPSP, action potential generation), inhibition & facilitation at synapsis, synaptic plasticity & learning (incl. long-term potentiation/depression), neuromodulation, receptors.

neuromuscular junction (motor endplate): 1113-1115, 1119 (6) (musculoskeletal)

 

neurochemistry, neurotransmitters, receptors: A4b >>

incl. catecholamines (norepinephrine, dopamine), serotonin, histamine, acetylcholine, amino acids (glutamate, aspartate, GABA, glycine), neuropeptides (tachykinins [substance P, neurokinins], fosaprepitant (Emend), opioids* [endorphins, dynorphins, enkephalins]), cannabinoids, gases (NO, CO).

*also see S21 >>, 3905 >> (intensive care)

sleep neurochemistry: D27 >>

arousal neurochemistry: S30 >>

autonomic neurochemistry (incl. acetylcholine, norepinephrine) → see visceral (autonomic) nervous system >>

 

pathologic reactions of neurons, neuron doctrine of Santiago Ramón Y Cajal: A5 >>

incl. wallerian degeneration, chromatolysis, denervation hypersensitivity, neuronal inclusions, trans-synaptic neuronal death, direct neuronal death, neuron regeneration.

 

supporting cells: A6

incl. Rosenthal fibers

gemistocytic astrocyte (gemistocyte): Onc10 >>

myelin, myelination: A7 (1-5)

demyelination: A7 (4)

 

meninges: A40 >>, A40 (1-4)

Liliequist membrane: A40 >>

development → see general development >>

 

blood-brain barrier (BBB), blood-CSF barrier: A8 >>

 

CSF (cerebrospinal fluid), choroid plexus, arachnoid villi: D40 >>

ventricular system → see cerebrum >>

 

ICP (intracranial pressure), Monroe-Kellie hypothesis: S50 >>

 

bioenergetics, metabolism of CNS: A211, 844 (biochemistry)

 

sensations

sensory receptors: A17 >>

incl. impulse initiation (receptor potentials), information coding, sensory unit, sensory modalities, sense organs, skin receptors.

afferent tracts: A45 (2)

touch: A17 >>, A49 (2)

proprioreception: A49 (2)

vibration: A17 >>

temperature: A17 >>

itch, tickle: A17 >>

taste → see visceral (autonomic) nervous system >>

smell → see rhinencephalon >>

vision → see “Eye. Ophthalmology” >>

hearing → see “Ear. Otology” >>

pain, sensory disorders → see S. Signs, Symptoms, Syndromes” >>

 

motor systems: A101 (5-6), A102 (1-2), A46 (4-6), A89, A57 (6)

motor unit: A46 (5)

abnormal motor unit: A46 (5a)

extrapyramidal system: A101 (6)

reflex: A18 >>

incl. muscle stretch reflex, withdrawal reflex, muscular spindles, reciprocal inhibition, inverse stretch reflex, Golgi tendon organ, muscle tone, lengthening reaction, clonus.

muscle coordination: A60 >>

postural control: A61 >>

incl. tonic labyrinthine reflexes, tonic neck reflexes, spinal transection (pontomedullary dysfunction, spinal shock), decerebration (diencephalic-midbrain dysfunction, decerebrate rigidity), decortication (decorticate rigidity), midbrain animal.

lesions of upper and lower motoneurons: A50 (3-4)

 

sleep-wake cycle: A57 (5), D27 >>

 

 

General Development

CNS: A13 (1-5)

neurons & glia: A13 (4), A6 >>

brain / cerebrum: A13 (1-4), A132 (2) - A133 (4)

cortex: A144 (1)

diencephalon: A111 (1-2)

brain stem: A55 (1-2)

cerebellum: A86 (2)

spinal cord: A13 (5), A13 (5a)

spinal nerves: A13 (6-8)

neural crest: A13 (5-6)

somites: A13 (8-9)

meninges: A13 (6)

skull: Dev9 >>

 

nervous system changes with aging: 4809

incl. leukoaraiosis (s. white matter hyperintensities)

 

 

cerebrum

topography: A130 (1) - A132 (2)

ventricular system: A130 (2)

blood supply to choroidal plexuses: A205

 

Blood Supply

arteries: A205 >>

development (embryogenesis) of blood supply: A201 >>

syndromes of arterial territories: Vas3 >>

veins, dural venous sinuses: A207 >>

cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), pressure autoregulation: A211 >>

 

Rhinencephalon

general: A135 (2-7), CN1 >>

olfactory physiology: A135 (8a-b)

 

Limbic System

general: A135 (8-10), A138 (5-6), A139

limbic cortex histology: A145 (2)

substantia innominata, Nucleus basalis of Meynert: A135 (9), A136

amygdala: A137 - A137 (2)

hippocampus: A138 - A138 (4)

Papez circuit: A138 (4)

emotions: A138 (4-6), A139

Klüver-Bucy syndrome: A137, A138 (5)

sexual behavior, pheromones, maternal behavior: A139

fear, rage, placidity: A139

self-stimulation & addiction: A139

 

White Matter

general: A143 (1)

projection fibers: A143 (1)

association fibers: A143 (2-3)

cingulotomy: A143 (3)

hemispheric asymmetry: A157 (1-3)

commissures: A143 (3-5)

commissurotomy (split-brain): A157 (1-3)

 

Cortex

general: A144 (2)

types: A144 (1-2)

development → see general development >>

layers: A144 (3-4, 6)

neurons: A144 (5-6)

connections: A144 (7)

cytoarchitecture: A145 (1-2)

functional areas: A148-A149

       motor cortex: A150 (1-4)

supplementary motor cortex: A101 (6)

       sensory cortex: A155 (1-3)

       association cortex: A156 (1-5)

agnosia: A156 (1-2)

Balint syndrome: Eye62 >>, Eye64 >>, A156 (2)

apraxia / dyspraxia: S8

Gerstmann’s syndrome, left hemineglect: A156 (5)

language, speech → see S. Signs, Symptoms, Syndromes” >>

memory & learning → see S. Signs, Symptoms, Syndromes” >>

lesions of specific cerebral lobes (frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital): Onc1 >>

frontal lobe syndrome: A156 (5), Onc1 >>Psy5 >>

 

 

basal motor nuclei

topography, nomenclature: A100 - A101 (2)

connections: A101 (2-5)

physiology: A103 >>

striatum, pallidum, red nucleus, substantia nigra: A101 (3-5)

blood supply: A205 >>

lesions (incl. athetosis, dystonia, tardive dyskinesia, ballismus, chorea, tremor): Mov1 >>

 

 

diencephalon

general: A110 (1-3)

development → see general development >>

 

thalamus:

topography: A111 (2-4)

nuclei: A111 (4-9)

connections: A111 (10) - A112 (2)

            internal capsule: A112 (1-2), A205

blood supply: A205 >>

lesions: A114

 

hypothalamus: A111 (2)

hypophysis: 2709-2714 (endocrine system)

as neuroendocrine organ: 2715-2716 (endocrine system)

topography: A115

nuclei: A115a, A116 (1-4)

connections: A116 (4-6)

arching systems of cerebrum (stria terminalis, stria medullaris, fornix, striae lancisi): A118 (1-2)

blood supply: A205 >>

circumventricular organs: A118 (2-3)

functions and disorders: A119 (1-2), A120 (1-4), A121, Veg3 >>

            thermoregulation → see vegetative (autonomic) nervous system >>

            motivated behavior: A120 (2-3)

 

epithalamus: A111 (1)

pineal gland (epiphysis cerebri): 2717-2718 (endocrine system)

habenula: A111 (1), A119 (3)

stria medullaris: A111 (1)

 

subthalamus: A111 (1)

subthalamic nucleus: A103

 

brain stem

composition, external anatomy: A55 (1-4)

blood supply: A205 >>

development → see general development >>

medulla oblongata: A55 (4-5)

pons: A55 (6-7)

midbrain: A55 (7-8)

lemniscus medialis: A55 (6)

corticobulbar (corticonuclear) tract: A55 (8)

reticular formation, ARAS: A57 (1-6)

locus ceruleus (s. locus cinereus): A91 (1)

brainstem lesions: A59 >>

incl. medial syndromes of medulla & pons (incl. Foville syndrome, Millard-Gubler syndrome);

lateral syndromes of medulla & pons (incl. lateral medullary [Wallenberg] syndrome, lateral superior / inferior pontine syndromes); also see Eye64 >>

bulbar palsy, pseudobulbar palsy, locked-in syndrome (pseudocoma) →

→ see “Mov. Movement Disorders” >>

midbrain syndromes (incl. dorsal midbrain [s. collicular, Parinaud] syndrome, ventral midbrain [s. Weber] syndrome, central [s. tegmental] midbrain syndrome); also see Eye64 >>

Claude syndrome, Benedikt syndrome, Nothnagel syndrome: Eye64 >>

decerebration: A61 >>

 

 

cerebellum

topography: A85 (1-2)

development → see general development >>

blood supply: A205 >>, A207 >>

cortex: A91 (1-4)

nuclei: A86 (1)

peduncles: A93

main scheme: A86 (1), A89, A89a

            vestibulocerebellum: A86 (2)

            spinocerebellum: A87 (1-2)

            cerebrocerebellum: A88

lesions: caudal vermis syndrome, rostral vermis syndrome, cerebellar hemisphere syndrome):

A94 (1-3), Mov5 >>

cerebellar mutism (posterior fossa syndrome): Onc18 >>

 

 

cranial nerves

general: A65 (1-3)

CN1 (nn. olfactorii): A135 (1-2); also see rhinencephalon >>

CN2 (n. opticus) → see “Eye. Ophthalmology” >>

CN3 (n. oculomotorius) → see “Eye. Ophthalmology” >>

CN4 (n. trochlearis) → see “Eye. Ophthalmology” >>

CN5 (n. trigeminus): A70 (1-6), A70 (3b) >>

CN6 (n. abducens) → see “Eye. Ophthalmology” >>

CN7 (n. facialis): A72 (1-4), A73 >>, Onc62 >>

CN8 (n. vestibulocochlearis) → see “Ear. Otology” >>

CN9 (n. glossopharyngeus): A74 (1-3)

CN10 (n. vagus): A75 (1-4), 53

CN11 (n. accessorius): A76 (1-2)

CN12 (n. hypoglossus): A77 (1-2)

lesions of cranial nerves → see “CN. Cranial Neuropathies” >>

 

 

spinal cord

n. spinalis → see peripheral nervous system >>

topography: A45 (1-2), A46 (1)

blood supply: A203 >>

            development of blood supply: A201 >>

grey matter: A46 (2-4)

white matter: A47 (1-2), A48 (1)

            ascending pathways:

dorsal funiculus: A48 (2)

tr. spinothalamicus: A49 (1-2)

tr. spinocerebellaris: A50 (1)

descending pathways:       

tr. pyramidalis (s. corticospinalis): A50 (2-3)

tr. rubrospinalis: A50 (2b)

tr. vestibulospinalis: A50 (2c)

clinico-anatomic syndromes of spinal cord: A50 (4-6); also see Spin1 >>

incl. motoneuron disease, sensory neuron disease, combined funicular lesions, syringomyelia, spinal cord transections.

 

 

peripheral nervous system

cranial nerves → see cranial nerves >>

development → see general development (spinal nerves) >>

lesions → see “PN. Peripheral Neuropathies” >>

anatomy, histology, physiology (incl. nerve fiber, fascicle, endoneurium, perineurium, epineurium, axoplasmic transport): A14 (1-2) – A15

dermatomes: A20 (1)

face: 1083 (musculoskeletal system)

scalp: 1067 (musculoskeletal system)

ear: Ear02

theory of nerve components: A13 (8), A65 (3)

n. spinalis: A45 (1-2), A24 (2)

thoracic cage (nn. intercostales): A24 (1-2)

abdominal wall, inguinal region: A24 (2)

cervical plexus, ansa cervicalis: A26 (1-2)

n. phrenicus: A26 (2), 52

brachial plexus: A20 (1-14)

n. musculocutaneous: A20 (7)

n. axillaris: A20 (8-9)

n. radialis: A20 (8-9)

n. ulnaris: A20 (10-11)

n. medianus: A20 (12-13)

hand innervation: A20 (14)

lumbosacral plexus: A22 (1-10)

n. ischiadicus: A22 (5)

n. tibialis: A22 (6-7)

n. peroneus: A22 (8-9)

 

 

visceral (autonomic) nervous system

general: A30 (2), A31 (1-2), A33

afferentation: A30 (1)

            referred pain: A32 (2)

efferentation: A32 (2)

 

visceral function control: A57 (5-6)

breathing: 2115 (2-10) (respiratory system)

micturition: 2430-2432 (genitourinary system)

neurogenic bladder: 2590a >>

urinary incontinence: 2590 >>

defecation: 1821 (4) (digestive system)

vomiting: 1846 (1-5), 1814 (7) (digestive system)

central mechanisms, oncological aspects: 1715 (1-3) (oncology)

taste: A79, 1826 (2-4) (digestive system)

incl. taste disorders (ageusia, hypogeusia, dysgeusia).

hunger, food intake: A124

thirst, drinking: A124

body temperature, thermoregulation: A121

incl. fever, fever of unknown origin, poikilothermy, hereditary periodic fever syndromes (familial Mediterranean fever, hyper-IgD syndrome, TNF receptor–associated periodic syndrome, s. familial Hibernian fever).

heat disorders (hypothermia, hyperthermia, etc): 3909 (intensive care)

 

autonomic neurochemistry: A34 >>

incl. acetylcholine, norepinephrine, cholinoreceptors, adrenoreceptors.

autonomic pharmacology: A35 >>

incl. organophosphates, carbamates

direct acting cholinergic agonists (acetylcholine, bethanechol, carbachol, pilocarpine, methacholine, cevimeline)

anticholinesterases (physostigmine, neostigmine, pyridostigmine, edrophonium, tacrine, donepezil, galanthamine, rivastigmine, echothiophate, isoflurophate [DFP], demecarium)

acetylcholinesterase reactivation (pralidoxime)

anticholinergics (atropine, scopolamine [hyoscine], ipratropium, tiotropium, pirenzepine)

ganglionic blockers (trimethaphan, mecamylamine, nicotine, hexamethonium)

direct-acting adrenergic agonists (epinephrine [adrenaline], norepinephrine [levarterenol], isoproterenol, dopamine, dobutamine, phenylephrine, methoxamine, midodrine, metaproterenol, albuterol, terbutaline, pirbuterol, bitolterol, ritodrine, salbutamol, salmeterol, clonidine, α-methyldopa, guanabenz, guanfacine)

indirect-acting adrenergic agonists (amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, methamphetamine METH, Ice), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy), tyramine, cocaine, methylphenidate, dexmethylphenidate)

mixed action adrenergic agonists (ephedrine, metaraminol, hydroxyamphetamine, methamphetamine, mephentermine)

β-adrenergic blockers (propranolol, timolol, nadolol, pindolol, penbutolol, carteolol, oxprenolol, sotalol, atenolol, metoprolol, acebutolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, esmolol, nebivolol)

α-adrenergic blockers (prazosin, terazosin, doxazosin, phenoxybenzamine, phentolamine)

α and β adrenergic blockers (labetalol, carvedilol)

other antiadrenergics (reserpine, guanethidine, guanadrel, fenoldopam mesylate, bretylium)

ergot alkaloids (ergotamine, dihydroergotamine, methysergide, ergonovine, methylergonovine)

 

sympathic NS: A32 (1)

sympathetic chain: A31 (2)

Horner syndrome: A32 (2), Eye64 >>

            sudomotor, pupillomotor control: A57 (6)

vasomotor: A57 (6), 1322-1325 (cardiovascular system)

 

parasympathic NS: A32 (2), A65 (4)

also see cranial nerves: III, VII, IX, X >>

 

enteric NS: see 1801 (7) (digestive system)

 

 

 

CN. Cranial Neuropathies

food supplements for reversing neuropathies: PN1 >>

multiple cranial nerve lesions: CN0 >>

incl. Foix, Tolosa-Hunt, Jacod, Gradenigo, Vernet, Marcus Gunn, Collet-Sicard, Villaret, Tapia, Jackson, Schmidt, Wallenberg, Weber, Claude, Benedikt, Nothnagel syndromes.

CN1 (nn. olfactorii): CN1 >>, A135 (7-8)

incl. smell disorders (hyposmia, anosmia, parosmia, dysosmia, cacosmia, hyperosmia).

CN2 (n. opticus) → see “Eye. Ophthalmology” >>

CN3 (n. oculomotorius) → see “Eye. Ophthalmology” >>

CN4 (n. trochlearis) → see “Eye. Ophthalmology” >>

CN5 (n. trigeminus): CN5 >>, Eye64 >>

incl. trigeminal neuralgia [tic douloureux], Gradenigo syndrome, Raeder paratrigeminal syndrome, onion-skin pattern face anesthesia;

schwannoma: Onc62 >>

CN5 surgery: microvascular decompression (s. Jannetta procedure), percutaneous trigeminal (retrogasserian) rhizotomy.

CN6 (n. abducens) → see “Eye. Ophthalmology” >>

CN7 (n. facialis): CN7 >>

incl. facial palsy - Bell's palsy, Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, Möbius syndrome, Heerfordt syndrome [uveoparotid fever], cerebellopontine angle syndrome, facial canal syndrome, stylomastoid foramen syndrome, Ramsay-Hunt syndrome [geniculate zoster, herpes zoster oticus], facial overactivation syndromes (hemifacial spasm, myokymia), facial nerve trauma*, re-innervation syndromes - postparalytic synkinesis, crocodile tears, gustatory sweating (Frey syndrome).

*facial nerve birth trauma: Ped9 >>

schwannoma: Onc62 >>

CN8 (n. vestibulocochlearis) → see “Ear. Otology” >>

schwannoma: Onc62 >>

CN9 (n. glossopharyngeus): A74 (2)

glossopharyngeal neuralgia (s. tic douloureux of CN9): CN9-10 >>

CN10 (n. vagus): A75 (2)

lesions of laryngeal nerves: 2168 (2), 2170 (respiratory system)

CN11 (n. accessorius): CN11-12 >>

CN12 (n. hypoglossus): CN11-12 >>

schwannoma: Onc62 >>

 

 

 

D. Diagnostics

Bedside” examination >>

Laboratory – Instrumental examination >>

 

 

“Bedside” examination

neurologic examination: D1 >>

incl. nuchal rigidity, Kernig sign (bent-knee leg raising), Brudzinski signs, environmental dependence (imitation behavior, utilization behavior), stereognosis, graphesthesia s. number identification, topesthesia s. point localization, baresthesia, two-point discrimination, extinction, Lhermitte sign, Spurling test, Axial loading test, dermatomes, myotomes, cutaneous nerve distributions, detection of sensory / motor malingering, fasciculations, dyskinesias, synkinesia, Lord Beevor sign, Barré sign, pronator drift, Jolly test, Jendrassik maneuver, Babinski response, reflexes (abdominal, plantar, cremaster, anal wink, bulbocavernosus, Starling, Trömner, Bechterew-Mendel, Hoffmann, Rossolimo, Puusepp, Oppenheim, Chaddock, Schäffer, Gordon, Bing, Strunsky, Throckmorton, Williams, Brissaud, Marie-Foix-Bechterew, corneal blink, sneeze, jaw-jerk, gag, oculocardiac Aschner, carotid sinus), frontal release signs, s. primitive reflexes (sucking, snout, visual suck, rooting, palmomental, grasp, glabellar), coordination tests (finger-nose, finger-chase test, point-to-point, past-pointing, heel-to-shin, heel-to-toe), dysdiadochokinesia, dysmetria (Stewart-Holmes sign s. rebound phenomenon, signe de la prehension), Romberg test, Bell phenomenon, Chvostek sign, Schirmer test, orthostatic vital signs, orthostatic hypotension, Tinel's sign, sciatica, maneuvers (Néri, Sicard, Lasègue s. straight-leg raising, crossed Lasègue Bechterew, Freiberg, Pace, Beatty, Mirkin, reverse straight-leg raising Wassermann), Froment prehensile thumb sign (signe du journal), "claw hand" (main en griffe), "hand of benediction".

mental status examination, neuropsychological testing: D1 >>, D2 >>, D3 >>, D10 >>, D12 >>

pediatric neurologic examination: D5 >>

otologic examination: D1ear >>

ophthalmologic examination: D1eye >>

 

 

Laboratory – Instrumental examination

Principles of instrumental neurodiagnosis: D19 >>

 

Electrodiagnosis:

electroencephalography (EEG): D27 >>

evoked potentials (somatosensory, trigeminal, motor, cognitive), magnetic stimulation, intraoperative monitoring (incl. Stagnara wake up test): D25 >>

brain stem auditory evoked response (baer): Ear30 >>

visual evoked potentials (vep): Eye60 >>

olfactory evoked potentials: CN1 >>

magnetoencephalography (MEG): D29 >>

nerve conduction studies (sensory, motor, F response, H reflex, blink reflex, repetitive nerve stimulation): D22 >>

electromyography (EMG): D20 >>

nascent polyphasic potentials: PN7 >>

 

Tissue examination:

brain biopsy – see Operative Techniques” >>

nerve biopsy – see Operative Techniques” >>

muscle biopsy, serum & urinary markers of muscle disease: D30 >>

 

CSF (cerebrospinal fluid): D40 >>

incl. xanthochromia, bloody CSF, pleocytosis, Froin syndrome (s. loculation syndrome), hypoglycorrhachia, CSF in various disorders.

lumbar puncture: Op3 >>

 

Neuroimaging: D45 >>

incl. intravenous contrast enhancement principles, pediatric neuroimaging, fetal neuroimaging, neonatal neuroimaging.

plain radiography (skull, facial): D47 >>

incl. Schüller, Stenvers view

spinal X-ray: D70 >>

pneumoencephalog­raphy: D55 >>

CT: D49 >>

spinal CT: D70 >>

CT cisternography: S64 >>, D49 >>

MRI: D51 >>

incl. hemorrhage (blood, clot) MRI signal, echo planar imaging (EPI), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging, fast spin echo (FSE) MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI*, perfusion-weighted MRI, ADC maps*.

*also see Vas3 >>

MRS (MR spectroscopy): D53 >>

MRS in tumors: Onc1 >>

MRS in stroke: Vas3 >>

PET: D53 >>

ultrasound:

ultrasound of infant brain: D57 >>

incl. A mode (amplification), static B mode (brightness), TM mode (time-motion), real-time ultrasound.

ultrasound of infant spine: D70 >>

Doppler: D62 >>

in carotid disease: Vas7 >>

 

Vascular examination: D60 >>

catheter angiography: D61 >>

incl. conventional angiography, digital subtraction angiography (DSA), biplane angiography, 3D rotational angiography, spinal angiography, ICG (indocyanine green) angiography

Doppler: D62 >>

incl. continuous wave Doppler, duplex Doppler, Gosling index, Lindegaard index.

in carotid disease: Vas7 >>

CT angiography (CTA), CT venography (CTV), perfusion CT (pCT): D64 >>

magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), magnetic resonance venography (MRV): D64 >>

regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) examination: D66 >>

incl. 133Xe rCBF, stable Xe-CT, perfusion CT, single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), functional MRI (fMRI), blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) contrast technique.

diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI), perfusion-weighted MRI (PW-MRI), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps: Vas3 >>

oculopneumoplethysmography (OPG): Vas7 >>

carotid occlusion studies: D68 >>

 

Spinal imaging: D70 >>

incl. X-ray, CT, MRI, myelography, discography, neonatal ultrasound, conjoined root sleeves.

spinal angiography: D61 >>

 

 

 

Dem. Demyelinating disorders

PNS demyelination: Dem1 >>

incl. Guillain-Barré syndrome (gbs), acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (aidp), Miller-Fisher syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (cidp), multifocal motor neuropathy (s. mnmcb, motor neuropathy with multiple conduction blocks), congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy.

 

CNS demyelination: Dem3 >>

incl. incidental white-matter hyperintensities.

Multiple Sclerosis: Dem5 >>

incl. Marburg variant (acute MS), Kurtzke expanded disability status scale (edss), interferon-β 1b (Betaseron), interferon-β 1a (Avonex, Rebif), glatiramer acetate (s. copolymer 1, Copaxone), natalizumab (Tysabri), cladribine (Leustatin), dalfampridine (Ampyra), teriflunomide (Aubagio), dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera)

MS-related disorders: Dem7 >>

incl. neuromyelitis optica (Devic's disease), concentric sclerosis (Baló disease, encephalitis periaxialis concentrica), Schilder disease (s. encephalitis periaxialis diffusa, diffuse sclerosis), experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE).

Cns complications of viral infections and vaccines: Dem9 >>

incl. acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (adem), acute necrotizing hemorrhagic encephalomyelitis (anhem, s. acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis of Weston Hurst).

Leukodystrophies: Dem11 >>

incl. adrenoleukodystrophy, adrenomyeloneuropathy, neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (Ulrich's disease), metachromatic leukodystrophies (s. sulfatide lipidoses), globoid cell leukodystrophy (s. Krabbe disease), Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (connatal Seitelberger disease, adult Löwenberg-Hull disease), Canavan disease (s. spongy degeneration of nervous system), Cockayne syndrome, Alexander disease.

Metabolic Demyelinations: Dem13 >>

incl. demyelination of corpus callosum (Marchiafava-Bignami disease), central pontine myelinolysis.

 

 

 

Dev. Developmental disorders

Congenital CNS Anomalies (GENERAL): Dev1 >>

incl. iniencephaly.

 

Brain Anomalies: Dev7 >>

segmentation, cleavage, midline defects: Dev7 >>

incl. holoprosencephaly, septo-optic dysplasia, agenesis of corpus callosum, arrhinencephaly, cyclopia, ethmocephaly, cebocephaly, Neu-Laxova syndrome, Shapiro syndrome, Kallmann's syndrome, colpocephaly

 

neuronal migration and cortical formation disorders: Dev7 >>

incl. lissencephaly (s. agyria), pachygyria (s. macrogyria), Miller-Dieker syndrome, polymicrogyria, neuronal heterotopia, focal cortical dysplasias, ulegyria, schizencephaly, porencephaly, hydranencephaly, megalencephaly, Sotos’ syndrome (s. cerebral gigantism), FG syndrome, hemimegalencephaly, microencephaly.

posterior fossa anomalies: Dev7 >>

incl. Chiari malformations (Arnold-Chiari malformation), Dandy–Walker malformation, mega cisterna magna, vermian–cerebellar hypoplasia.

intracranial arachnoid cysts: Dev7 >>

 

Cranial Anomalies: Dev9 >>

incl. craniosynostosis (scaphocephaly, dolichocephaly, brachycephaly, trigonocephaly, plagiocephaly, oxycephaly, triphyllocephaly, kleeblattschädel, Crouzon's syndrome (s. craniofacial dysostosis), Apert's syndrome (s. acrocephalosyndactyly), turricephaly, turmschädel, Pfeiffer syndrome, Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, Carpenter syndrome, Jackson-Weiss syndrome, Autley-Bixler syndrome, Baller-Gerold syndrome, 9p monosomy, positional molding), macrocephaly (trisomy 9p syndrome, Robinow syndrome, Greig cephalopolysyndactyly, BESS syndrome (benign enlargement of subarachnoidal space), microcephaly (microcephalia vera, Cornelia de Lange syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome).

temporal bone anomalies: Ear42 >>

cranial remodeling: Dev15 >>

incl. fronto-orbital advancement.

 

Craniocervical Junction Anomalies: Dev9 >>

incl. basilar impression, basilar invagination, platybasia, convexobasia, atlantoaxial instability, os odontoideum, occipitalization of atlas (s. assimilation of atlas), dens hypoplasia, Klippel-Feil anomaly (MURCS syndrome, Escobar syndrome), atlanto-axial rotatory fixation, iniencephaly.

 

Neural Tube Disorders (s. dysraphism, neurulation defects): Dev3 >>

cranioschisis: Dev3 >>

incl. anencephaly, exencephaly, encephalocele, cranial meningocele, encephalocystocele, Meckel-Gruber syndrome, nasal glioma.

spina bifida: Dev3 >>

incl. spina bifida occulta, spina bifida manifesta / aperta / cystica, myelomeningocele, lückenschädel.

neurenteric cyst: Dev3 >>

 

Spinal Cord Anomalies: Dev5 >>

incl. diastematomyelia, diplomyelia, neuro-enteric cyst, dorsal dermal sinus, lipomyelomeningodysplasias (lipomyelomeningocele, lipomyelocele, lipomyeloschisis), subpial lipoma, intramedullary lipoma, abnormal retrogressive differentiation, tethered filum / tight filum / fatty filum, caudal regression syndromes, sacral agenesis, conus hypoplasia, spinal meningeal cysts (incl. Tarlov, s. perineural cysts), arachnoid cysts.

 

Spinal Anomalies: Dev9 >>

incl. vertebral fusion anomalies (synspondylism), transitional vertebrae, hemivertebrae, butterfly vertebrae, failure of fusion of secondary ossification centers, limbus vertebra, pedicle anomalies, lateral meningocele syndrome

 

 

 

E. Epilepsy & Seizures

EEG: D27 >>

 

Epilepsy Definitions, Classifications, Clinical Features, Diagnosis: E1 >>

incl. sudden unexpected death in epilepsy.

 

Epilepsy Treatment Principles: E5 >>

 

Antiepileptic Drugs: E3 >>

incl. carbamazepine, phenytoin, fosphenytoin, oxcarbazepine, eslicarbazepine acetate, lamotrigine, zonisamide, lacosamide, rufinamide, ethosuximide, methsuximide, clonazepam, clobazam, diazepam, lorazepam, midazolam, phenobarbital, primidone, tiagabine, vigabatrin, valproate, gabapentin, felbamate, topiramate, levetiracetam, brivaracetam, pregabalin, acetazolamide, ketogenic diet, ezogabine, perampanel.

 

Status Epilepticus: E7 >>

 

Epileptic Syndromes: E9 >>

incl. benign childhood partial epilepsies, temporal lobe epilepsy, extratemporal neocortical epilepsy, epilepsia partialis Continua (Rasmussen syndrome, s. Kozhevnikov, Kojevnikoff, Kojewnikoff epilepsy), absence epilepsy, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, myoclonic epilepsies of infancy and childhood, early myoclonic encephalopathy, early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (Ohtahara syndrome), benign (s. typical) myoclonic epilepsy of infancy, severe (s. complex) myoclonic epilepsy in infancy (Dravet syndrome), epilepsy with myoclonic absences, benign neonatal convulsions, febrile seizures, autoimmune epilepsies, West syndrome (infantile spasms), Aicardi syndrome, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, progressive myoclonic epilepsies, Lafora disease, Unverricht-Lundborg disease (Baltic myoclonus), acquired epileptic aphasia (Landau-Kleffner syndrome), neonatal seizures, breath-holding spells, psychogenic seizures (pseudoseizures), catamenial epilepsy, post-traumatic seizures, post-traumatic epilepsy.

 

Surgical Treatment

Principles of epilepsy surgical treatment: E11 >>

incl. intracarotid amobarbital (Wada) test, DBS, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), lesionectomy (focal cortical resection), tailored neocortical resection, multilobar resection.

 

Intracranial EEG: E13 >>

incl. subdural electrodes (grid, strip), depth electrodes, cortical mapping.

 

Temporal lobectomy: E15 >>

incl. Spencer anteromedial temporal lobectomy, standard en bloc anterior temporal lobectomy, amygdalohippocampectomy.

 

Multiple subpial transections: E17 >>

 

Functional hemispherectomy: E19 >>

 

Corpus callosotomy: E21 >>

 

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS): E23 >>

 

Responsive neurostimulation (RNS, Neuropace): E25 >>

 

Laser Ablation: Op345 >>

 

 

 

Ear. Otology

Basics (Anatomy, Histology, Physiology) >>

Otologic Examination >>

Otologic Symptoms & Signs >>

Inner Ear disorders >>

Middle Ear disorders >>

External Ear disorders >>

 

 

Basics (Anatomy, Histology, Physiology)

development: Ear26-Ear27

malformations (incl. preauricular appendages and pits): Ear27

temporal bone anomalies: Ear42 >>

 

External ear: Ear01-Ear02

innervation: Ear02

 

Middle ear:

tympanic membrane (myrinx): Ear03-Ear04

tympanic cavity, auditory (eustachian) tube: Ear04-Ear06

auditory ossicles: Ear06-Ear07

 

Inner ear:

blood supply: Ear15

bony labyrinth: Ear08-Ear09

membranous labyrinth: Ear09-Ear10

sensory organs:

vestibular (macula, crista ampullaris): Ear10-Ear11

cochlear (organum spirale Corti): Ear12-Ear14

 

Cranial nerve 8 (n. vestibulocochlearis): Ear16, Onc62 >>

 

Vestibular system: Ear17-Ear20

vestibular physiology: Ear19, Ear21 >>

labyrinthectomy: Ear21 >>

 

Cochlear system: Ear22-Ear24

auditory cortex: A155 (2)

auditory physiology: Ear25 >>

middle ear: Ear07, Ear25 >>

inner ear: Ear14, Ear25 >>

hair cell function: Ear12a >>

 

 

Otologic Examination

“Bedside” ear examination: D1ear >>

incl. otoscopy, pneumatic otoscopy, tuning fork tests (air-bone conduction test of Rinne, lateralizing test of Weber, Schwabach test, Bing test), acoustic blink (cochleopalpebral, audiopalpebral) reflex, Halmagyi test, Fukuda test (s. stepping test of Unterberger), Dix-Hallpike maneuver, Nylen-Bárány maneuver, computerized platform posturography.

 

Instrumental auditory Examination: Ear30 >>

incl. pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, tympanometry (acoustic impedance), acoustic reflex testing, otoacoustic emissions, BAER s. BAEP (brain stem auditory evoked potentials), electrocochleography (ECoG), imaging (incl. Schüller view, Stenvers view), diagnostic tympanotomy, vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP).

 

 

Otologic Symptoms & Signs

Hearing loss (deafness): Ear32 >>

incl. pediatric hearing deficits, hearing aids (s. amplification), cochlear implants, auditory brainstem implants, psychogenic hearing loss.

sudden hearing loss: inner ear disorders >>

Tinnitus: Ear34 >>

Vertigo (dizziness): Ear34 >>

incl. vestibular suppressants

Earache (otalgia): Ear34 >>

 

 

Inner Ear disorders

Inner Ear disorders: Ear36 >>

incl. motion sickness, Ménière disease, Lermoyez syndrome, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, vestibular neuronitis, viral labyrinthitis, purulent labyrinthitis, serous labyrinthitis, labyrinthitis ossificans, sudden hearing loss, noise-induced hearing loss, acoustic trauma, presbycusis, drug-induced ototoxicity (toxic labyrinthitis), perilymphatic (labyrinthine) fistula, superficial siderosis

 

herpes zoster oticus (Ramsay Hunt syndrome): 256 (8) (infection)

temporal bone fractures: TrH5 >>

vestibular schwannoma (“acoustic neuroma”): Onc62 >>

trauma: TrH1 >>, TrH5 >>

temporal bone anomalies (incl. Mondini’s defect): Ear42 >>

labyrinthectomy: Ear21 >>

 

 

Middle Ear disorders

Middle Ear disorders: Ear38 >>

incl. tympanic membrane perforation, tympanoplasty, infectious (s. bullous) myringitis, acute otitis media, myringotomy, secretory (s. serous) otitis media, insertion of tympanostomy tube, adenoidectomy, acute mastoiditis, mastoidectomy, postauricular subperiosteal (Bezold) abscess, automastoidectomy, chronic suppurative otitis media, otosclerosis, cholesteatoma, neoplasms.

 

barotitis media: 2120 (1) (respiratory system)

trauma (hemotympanum, ossicle chain disruption): TrH1 >>, TrH5 >>

temporal bone anomalies: Ear42 >>

 

 

External Ear disorders

External Ear disorders: Ear40 >>

incl. obstructions (incl. cerumen [earwax] impaction, foreign body), external otitis, malignant external otitis, perichondritis, trauma (incl. subperichondrial hematoma, lacerations, fractures), tumors (incl. sebaceous cysts, osteomas, exostoses, keloids, ceruminomas).

 

temporal bone anomalies (incl. atresia of external auditory canal): Ear42 >>

 

 

 

Eye. Ophthalmology

Basics (Anatomy, Histology, Physiology) >>

Ophthalmologic Examination >>

Drugs in Ophthalmology >>

Ocular Symptoms & Signs >>

Optic Nerve & Visual Pathways disorders >>

Retinal disorders >>

Gaze and Autonomic Innervation disorders >>

Other disorders >>

 

 

Ophthalmologic Examination

“bedside” eye examination: D1eye >>

ophthalmoscopy (funduscopy): Eye60 >>

incl. retinal hemorrhages, soft exudates, hard exudates, drusen, senile macular degeneration, papilledema, glaucomatous cupping, hypertensive retinopathy, diabetic retinopathy.

tonometry (Schiøtz, Goldman): Eye60 >>, Eye70 >>

gonioscopy: Eye70 >>

slit lamp examination (biomicroscopy): Eye60 >>

ultrasonography: Eye60 >>

electroretinogram: Eye60 >>

visual evoked potentials (VEP): Eye60 >>

fluorescein angiography: Eye63 >>

heterotropia (diplopia), heterophoria testing, Maddox rod: Eye64 >>

vestibulo-ocular testing: Eye64 >>

electronystagmography (ENG): Eye60 >>

intravenous fluorescein angiography (IVFA): Eye60 >>

 

 

Drugs in Ophthalmology

mydriatics (phenylephrine, tropicamide, cyclopentolate): Eye61 >>

cycloplegics (cyclopentolate, atropine, homatropine): Eye61 >>

miotics (pilocarpine): Eye61 >>

anesthetics: Eye61 >>

steroids: Eye61 >>

mast cell stabilizers (cromolyn, olopatadine, lodoxamide): Eye61 >>

antihistamines (azelastine, emedastine, ketotifen, levocabastine): Eye61 >>

 

 

Ocular Symptoms & Signs

red eye: Eye88 >>

blindness, amblyopia: Eye65 >>

psychogenic vision loss: Eye62 >>

anisocoria, light-near dissociation, unreactive pupils: Eye64 >>

diplopia: Eye64 >>

opsoclonus, ocular flutter, ocular bobbing, ocular dipping: Eye64 >>

oscillopsia, nystagmus: Eye64 >>

visual hallucinations, floaters, halos, photophobia, pain, scotomas, aniridia, Kayser-Fleischer ring: Eye59 >>

 

 

Basics (Anatomy, Histology, Physiology)

development: Eye22-Eye23

developmental anomalies (incl. coloboma, cyclopia [synophthalmia], microphthalmia): Eye23

 

blood supply: Eye21

blood-ocular barrier: Eye23

retinal vessels: Eye36

 

Orbita: Eye01-Eye03

fractures: Eye01

 

Eyelids (palpebrae): Eye04-Eye06

glands (tarsal meibomian, Zeis, ciliary Moll): Eye06

 

Conjunctiva: Eye07

 

Lacrimal apparatus: Eye07-Eye08

 

Eyeball: Eye24

Tenon capsule: Eye12

cornea: Eye24-Eye25

sclera: Eye26

anterior chamber, aqueous humor, chamber angle: Eye27

iris: Eye28

ciliary body: Eye29

choroid: Eye30

vitreous body: Eye30

crystalline lens: Eye31

retina: Eye32-Eye36a

macula lutea, fovea centralis: Eye36

retinal physiology: Eye36a >>

incl. visual pigments [scotopsin, rhodopsin, iodopsin, photopsin, retinol, retinene], transducin, receptive field, Young-Helmholtz theory, adaptation.

 

Eye optics: Eye55 >>

incl. refractive power, accommodation, near point, far point, visual acuity, critical fusion frequency, visual fields & binocular vision.

accommodation reflex → see autonomic innervation >>

 

Sensory innervation (n. ophthalmicus, CN51): Eye19

conjunctival: Eye07

lacrimal gland: Eye08

 

Visual pathways, CN2 (n. opticus), Visual cortex, Visual perception: Eye37-Eye38, Eye41,

Eye57 >>

 

Optomotor system: Eye13, Eye44-Eye53

incl. saccade, smooth pursuit, vestibulo-oculomotor reflexes, optokinetic reflexes, vergence.

extraocular muscles: Eye08-Eye12

Hering law: Eye13

CN 3 (n. oculomotorius): Eye14-Eye16

incl. Edinger-Westphal nucleus, Perlia nucleus, ganglion ciliare.

CN4 (n. trochlearis): Eye17

CN6 (n. abducens): Eye18

supranuclear pathways (incl. gaze centers, eye fields in cortex): Eye47-Eye53

superior colliculus: Eye50

 

Autonomic innervation:

sympathetic innervation: Eye19

control of pupillary size: Eye42-Eye43

accommodation reflex: Eye43

 

 

Optic Nerve & Visual Pathways disorders

lesion topography: Eye41, Eye62 >>

optic nerve: Eye62 >>

incl. Marcus Gunn pupil, Pulfrich phenomenon, Uhthoff phenomenon, papilledema (choked disk), pseudopapilledema, papillitis (optic neuritis), retrobulbar optic neuritis, optic nerve infarction (ischemic optic neuropathy), compressive optic neuropathy, toxic / nutritional optic neuropathy (s. alcohol-tobacco amblyopia), optic atrophy (optic nerve atrophy), Leber hereditary optic atrophy, Foster Kennedy syndrome, optic nerve hypoplasia.

radiation optic neuropathy: Rx11 >> 

optic chiasm: Eye62 >>

optic tract / lateral geniculate body: Eye62 >>

incl. Wernicke sign.

optic radiations: Eye62 >>

occipital lobe: Eye62 >>

incl. Cogan rule, Riddoch phenomenon.

higher cortical lesions: Eye62 >>

incl. Balint syndrome.

psychogenic (functional) visual loss: Eye62 >>

incl. “monocular blindness”, “poor vision”, monocular diplopia, monocular hemianopia, “tunnel” vision.

optic pathway glioma: Onc10 >>

 

 

Retinal disorders

Vascular occlusions: Eye63 >>

incl. central retinal artery occlusion, branch retinal artery occlusion (incl. Roth spots), central retinal vein occlusion.

Retinal detachment, proliferative vitreoretinopathy: Eye63 >>

Age-related macular degeneration (senile macular degeneration): Eye63 >>

incl. pegaptanib, ranibizumab.

Retinopathy of prematurity (retrolental fibroplasia): Eye63 >>

Retinitis pigmentosa: Eye63 >>

Neuroretinitis (papilloretinitis): Eye63 >>

Retinoblastoma: Eye63 >>

Color blindness: Eye63 >>

CMV retinitis: 268 >> (infection)

Retinal angioma: Onc24 >>

 

 

Gaze and Autonomic Innervation disorders

pupillary syndromes: Eye64 >>

incl. anisocoria (ocular parasympathetic syndrome, Holmes-Adie syndrome, Horner syndrome, Raeder paratrigeminal syndrome), light-near dissociation (Argyll Robertson pupil), bilateral unreactive pupils.

ocular misalignment syndromes: Eye64 >>

incl. heterophoria, heterotropia s. strabismus (esotropia, exotropia, hypertropia), diplopia, skew deviation, Magendie-Hertwig sign, Tolosa-Hunt syndrome, n. oculomotorius (cn3) disorders (Marcus Gunn syndrome, Marin Amat syndrome, Claude syndrome, Benedikt syndrome, Nothnagel syndrome), n. trochlearis (cn4) disorders, n. abducens (cn6) disorders (incl. Duane’s syndrome, Wildervanck cervico-oculo-acoustic syndrome), MLF syndromes (internuclear ophthalmoplegia, 1½ syndrome).

conjugate gaze disorders: Eye64 >>

incl. opsoclonus, ocular flutter, Parinaud syndrome (s. midbrain pretectal syndrome, dorsal midbrain syndrome), ocular bobbing, ocular dipping, oculogyric crisis.

vestibulo-ocular system: Eye64 >>

incl. oscillopsia, congenital nystagmus, vestibular nystagmus, Alexander law, gaze-evoked nystagmus, downbeat nystagmus, upbeat nystagmus, torsional (rotary) nystagmus, horizontal nystagmus, seesaw nystagmus, spasmus nutans, periodic alternating nystagmus, Bruns nystagmus.

 

 

Other disorders

Eyelid Disorders: Eye66 >>

incl. lid edema, blepharitis, hordeolum (external hordeolum, sty, internal hordeolum, meibomian sty, acute chalazion), chalazion (meibomian cyst), entropion & ectropion, tumors (incl. xanthelasma), lid retraction, lagophthalmos, (blepharo)ptosis.

 

Cataract (incl. intraocular lens): Eye68 >>

 

Glaucoma: Eye70 >>, Eye88 >>

carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (acetazolamide, dichlorphenamide, methazolamide, ethoxzolamide, dorzolamide, brinzolamide);

adrenergic agonists (epinephrine, dipivefrin, apraclonidine, brimonidine);

β-blockers (timolol, betaxolol, levobunolol, carteolol, metipranolol);

prostaglandin analogs (latanoprost, bimatoprost, travoprost, unoprostone).

 

Refractive Errors: Eye72 >>

incl. hyperopia, presbyopia, myopia, astigmatism, anisometropia.

Contact lenses: Eye72 >>

incl. Acanthamoeba keratitis, giant papillary conjunctivitis.

Refractive surgery: Eye72 >>

incl. radial keratotomy, astigmatic keratotomy, photorefractive keratectomy, laser in situ keratomileusis (lasik), intracorneal rings, clear lens extraction (s. refractive lens exchange), phakic intraocular lens implants, conductive keratoplasty.

 

Uveitis: Eye74 >>, Eye88 >>

incl. iritis, iridocyclitis, cyclitis, choroiditis, pars planitis, panuveitis (endophthalmitis), Behçet syndrome, birdshot chorioretinopathy, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome (uveoencephalitis), sympathetic ophthalmia, masquerade syndromes.

 

Corneal Disorders: Eye76 >>

incl. corneal abrasion, superficial punctate keratitis, corneal ulcer, serpiginous keratitis (ulcus serpens), bacterial keratitis, peripheral ulcerative keratitis (marginal keratolysis, peripheral rheumatoid ulceration), keratoconjunctivitis sicca, phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis, interstitial (parenchymatous) keratitis, keratomalacia (xerotic keratitis, xerophthalmia), keratoconus, bullous keratopathy, neurotrophic keratopathy, arcus lipoides senilis (gerontoxon).

herpetic keratoconjunctivitis: 256 (5) >> (infection)

acute follicular conjunctivitis, epidemic keratoconjunctivitis: 258 (2) >> (infection)

Corneal transplantation (s. penetrating keratoplasty): Eye76 >>

 

Conjunctival and Scleral Disorders: Eye78 >>

eye hyperemia, subconjunctival hemorrhages, conjunctival edema, chemosis, hyperplasia of lymphoid follicles, benign neoplasms of conjunctiva (pinguecula, pterygium): Eye78 >>

acute conjunctivitis: viral (incl. pharyngoconjunctival fever, epidemic keratoconjunctivitis, acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis), bacterial, ophthalmia neonatorum (s. blennorrhea neonatorum, neonatal conjunctivitis, infantile purulent conjunctivitis): Eye78 >>, Eye88 >>

chronic conjunctivitis: Eye78 >>

episcleritis, scleritis: Eye78 >>, Eye88 >>

 

Vitreous Disorders: Eye80 >>

incl. vitreous hemorrhage, Terson syndrome, posterior vitreous detachment.

 

Lacrimal Disorders: Eye82 >>

incl. dacryostenosis, dacryocystitis, dacryoadenitis.

 

Orbital Disorders: Eye84 >>

incl. periorbital cellulitis, orbital cellulitis, exophthalmos (proptosis).

 

Eye Trauma: Eye86 >>

incl. hyphema, foreign bodies, contusions & lacerations (eyelid, eyebrow, lacrimal canaliculi, globe), traumatic optic neuropathy, burns, iridodialysis, cyclodialysis, commotio retinae (retinal commotion).

 

 

 

Inf. Infections

GENERAL: Inf1 >>

incl. dosages of antibiotics and antivirals.

 

Postoperative Infections: Op120 >>

 

Meningitis (s. arachnoiditis, leptomeningitis): Inf3 >>

incl. meningism (pseudomeningitis), Austrian syndrome, tuberculous meningitis, intracerebral tuberculoma, Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare meningitis, cryptococcal meningitis, cryptococcomas, neonatal meningitis, geriatric meningitis, posttraumatic meningitis, hemogenic meningitis, basal meningitis, spinal meningitis, spinal adhesive arachnoiditis, Mollaret meningitis (s. benign recurrent lymphocytic meningitis).

 

Abscess, Empyema: Inf5 >>

incl. intracerebral abscess, cerebritis, Toxoplasma gondii encephalitis, aspergillosis, intramedullary spinal cord abscess, subdural empyema (cranial, spinal), epidural abscess (cranial, spinal).

 

Osteomyelitis: Inf7 >>

incl. cranial osteomyelitis, vertebral osteomyelitis (s. infective spondylitis), Pott’s disease (tuberculous spondylitis), infectious diskitis.

 

Encephalitis: Inf9 >>

incl. herpes simplex encephalitis, VZV encephalomyelitis, arbovirus encephalitides (Eastern equine, Japanese B, St. Louis, Western equine, West Nile, Venezuelan equine, California - La Crosse, Dengue fever, Colorado tick fever, Powassan, Far East tick-borne, European tick-borne), encephalitis lethargica (von Economo disease), Balamuthia amebic encephalitis.

 

Parasitic Nervous System Infections: Inf11 >>

incl. neurocysticercosis

 

Slow infections: 266 >>

incl. prion diseases (prionoses), Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease), kuru, Gerstmann-Straüssler-Scheinker disease, fatal familial insomnia

 

Other:

Neurosyphilis: 239 (11-14) >>

Neuroborreliosis: 240 (6a) >>

Measles Encephalitides: 265 (7a) >>

HIV, AIDS (neurologic aspects): 270 >>

 

 

 

Met. Metabolic disorders

Metabolic myopathies: Met1 >>

incl. myoadenylate deaminase deficiency.

 

Mitochondrial disorders: Met5 >>

incl. Leigh disease (subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy), Alpers disease (progressive infantile cerebral poliodystrophy), Kearns-Sayre syndrome, Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome, merrf (myoclonic epilepsy and ragged red fibers syndrome), melas (mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, stroke-like episodes), narp (neuropathy, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa syndrome), mngie, s. mepop, polip, lethal infantile mitochondrial disease, Luft disease, mitochondrial dna depletion syndrome, disorders of citric acid cycle.

Leber hereditary optic atrophy: Eye62 >>

chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia: Eye64 >>

Reye syndrome: 265 (1) >> (infection)

 

Degenerative CNS diseases: Met7 >>

incl. neurodegenerative diseases, trinucleotide repeat diseases, anticipation.

 

Hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome: Met9 >>

 

 

 

Mov. Movement disorders, Ataxias

UMN & LMN disorders >>

Extrapyramidal disorders >>

Cerebellar disorders >>

Gait disorders >>

 

 

decorticate / decerebrate rigidity: A61 >>

 

Surgery for movement disorders: Op360 >>

incl. ventrolateral thalamotomy, pallidotomy, subthalamotomy, DBS

 

 

Upper motoneuron (UMN) & Lower motoneuron (LMN) disorders

GENERAL (UMN (pyramidal) & LMN disorders): Mov3 >>

incl. weakness, muscle tone abnormalities (hypotonia, spasticity, rigidity, paratonia / gegenhalten), fatigability, pseudobulbar paralysis*, "locked in" syndrome (s. pseudocoma)*, bulbar paralysis*, fasciculations, benign fasciculations (Denny-Brown, Foley syndrome), fibrillations, myokymia, cramp (s. spasm), muscle stiffness, tetany, contractures, paraparesis, hemiparesis, tetraparesis, monoparesis, bibrachial paresis, neck weakness ("floppy head" syndrome), hyporeflexia, bilateral hyperreflexia, acute generalized weakness, episodic weakness, drop attack.

*also see A59 >>

spasticity and it treatment: Mov3 >>

muscle relaxants: Mov3 >>

incl. baclofen, tizanidine, cyclobenzaprine, methocarbamol, carisoprodol, chlorzoxazone, metaxalone, orphenadrine

 

 

Extrapyramidal disorders

GENERAL (extrapyramidal movement disorders): Mov1 >>

incl. hyperkinesias, hypokinesias, tremor (physiologic tremor, dystonic tremor, essential tremor, familial [benign hereditary] tremor, orthostatic tremor, primary writer's tremor, shuddering attacks, hereditary chin trembling), tic, mannerisms, chorea, ballismus, athetosis, myoclonus, asterixis, dystonia, tardive (s. oral-buccal-lingual) dyskinesia, akathisia, psychogenic movement disorders (stereotypy, catatonia).

acute dystonia, tardive dyskinesia, akathisia as neuroleptic side effects: Psy9 >>

myoclonic encephalopathy (opsoclonus - myoclonus paraneoplastic syndrome): Onc20 >>

 

Parkinsonism, Parkinson’s disease: Mov10 >>

incl. antiparkinsonism drugs - L-DOPA (levodopa), carbidopa, benserazide, tolcapone, entacapone, bromocriptine, pergolide, pramipexole, ropinirole, cabergoline, apomorphine, rotigotine, amantadine, deprenyl (selegiline), rasagiline, benztropine, trihexyphenidyl, biperiden.

Secondary Parkinsonism: Mov11 >>

incl. drug-induced parkinsonism, mptp-induced parkinsonism, postencephalitic parkinsonism, hemiparkinsonism-hemiatrophy syndrome, "lower-body parkinsonism".

Parkinsonism-Plus Syndromes, Heredodegenerative Parkinsonism: Mov12 >>

incl. progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal ganglionic degeneration, multiple system atrophy (striatonigral degeneration, olivopontocerebellar atrophy, Shy-Drager syndrome), Lytico-Bodig (parkinsonism-dementia-als complex of Guam), Hallervorden-Spatz disease, familial basal ganglia calcifications, Wilson disease (hepatolenticular degeneration).

 

Choreas: Mov20 >>

incl. Huntington disease, Sydenham chorea (St. Vitus' dance, acute chorea, chorea minor), other immune choreas, chorea gravidarum, birth control pill chorea, senile chorea, neuroacanthocytosis, hemichorea & hemiballism, hereditary nonprogressive chorea.

 

Dystonias: Mov21 >>

incl. primary dystonia (s. dystonia musculorum deformans, idiopathic torsion dystonia), cervical dystonia (s. spasmodic torticollis), blepharospasm, writer's cramp, dystonia of vocal cords, dystonia-plus syndromes (dopa-responsive dystonia, X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism).

 

Drug-Induced Movement Disorders: Mov25 >>

incl. acute dystonic reactions, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, withdrawal emergent syndrome, tardive dyskinesia syndromes, akathisia.

 

Various other movement disorders: Mov22 >>

incl. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, chronic tic disorder, transient tic disorder of childhood, essential myoclonus, palatal myoclonus, myoclonic dystonia, startle syndromes (s. hyperexplexia), paroxysmal dyskinesias, painful legs - moving toes syndrome, post-traumatic movement disorders

 

 

Cerebellar disorders

GENERAL (cerebellar disorders): Mov5 >>

incl. ataxia, vestibulocerebellum (caudal vermis syndrome, s. flocculonodular syndrome), spinocerebellum (rostral vermis syndrome, s. anterior lobe syndrome), cerebrocerebellum (cerebellar hemisphere syndrome), pancerebellar syndrome, cerebellar oculomotor syndromes, cerebellovascular syndromes, paroxysmal ataxia.

cerebellar mutism: Onc18 >>

alcoholic cerebellar degeneration: Psy21 >>

 

Ataxias: Mov50 >>

incl. Friedreich ataxia, early-onset cerebellar ataxia with retained tendon reflexes, congenital ataxias, Joubert syndrome, ataxia-telangiectasia, ataxia due to vit. e deficiency, abetalipoproteinemia (Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome), spinocerebellar ataxia type 1, 2, 3 (Machado-Joseph disease), 4, 5, 6, 7, dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy, episodic ataxia type 1-2, nonhereditary, idiopathic cerebellar ataxia (cerebellar type, plus type), acute cerebellar ataxia.

 

 

Gait disorders

GENERAL (gait disorders): Mov7 >>

incl. falls, immobility, dyssynergy syndromes (freezing, frontal disequilibrium [Bruns ataxia, s. frontal ataxia], frontal gait), sensory gait syndromes (sensory ataxia, vestibular ataxia, visual ataxia, multisensory disequilibrium), perception / orientation syndromes, motor force disorders, force scaling disorders (parkinsonian gait, choreic gaits, dystonic gaits, cerebellar ataxia, corticospinal gaits), impaired adaptation and strategies (post-fall syndrome), psychogenic gait disorders.

 

 

 

Mus. Muscular, Neuromuscular disorders

GENERAL (Neuromuscular Disorders): Mus0 >>

 

Neuromuscular Junction disorders:

Myasthenia Gravis: Mus1 >>

incl. edrophonium chloride (Tensilon) test, thymectomy.

Congenital Myasthenias, Eaton-Lambert Syndrome: Mus2 >>

 

Muscular Dystrophies: Mus5 >>

incl. dystrophinopathies (Duchenne, Becker), Xp21 myopathies, McLeod syndrome, facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (s. Landouzy-Dejerine disease), scapuloperoneal syndromes, myotonic dystrophy (s. Steinert disease), myotonic dystrophy type 2 (s. Thornton-Griggs-Moxley disease, proximal myotonic dystrophy), Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, Hauptmann-Thannhauser muscular dystrophy, Bethlem myopathy, oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy, limb girdle muscular dystrophies, severe childhood autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy, distal muscular dystrophies, congenital muscular dystrophies (incl. Fukuyama, Walker-Warburg, muscle-eye-brain of Santavuori).

 

Skeletal Muscle Channelopathies: Mus7 >>

incl. hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, paramyotonia congenita (s. Eulenburg disease), sodium channel myotonias, autosomal dominant myotonia congenita (Thomsen disease), autosomal recessive myotonia congenita (Becker disease), hypokalemic periodic paralysis, Schwartz-Jampel syndrome (s. chondrodystrophic myotonia), thyrotoxic periodic paralysis, Andersen's syndrome, Brody's disease, rippling muscle disease, neuromyotonia (s. Isaacs' syndrome).

 

Congenital Myopathies: Mus9 >>

incl. nemaline myopathy, myotubular-centronuclear myopathy, central core disease, congenital fiber-type disproportion, other congenital myopathies.

 

Congenital Muscle Anomalies: Mus9 >>

incl. brain malformations and muscle development, amyoplasia, proteus syndrome (s. muscular dysgenesis, elephant man's disease).

 

Rhabdomyolysis, Myoglobinuria, Toxic Myopathies: Mus11 >>

malignant hyperthermia: 3910 (1-2) >> (intensive care)

 

 

 

Onc. Oncology

Brain & Skull tumors >>

Spinal & Vertebral tumors >>

Nerve tumors >>

 

 

Neurological Paraneoplastic Syndromes: Onc66 >>

incl. paraneoplastic antibodies (anti-Hu, antineuronal nuclear antibody, anti-Ri, anti-Yo, anti-Purkinje cell antibodies).

 

 

Brain & Skull tumors

Brain Tumors (GENERAL): Onc1 >>

incl. Bailey & Cushing schema, Gorlin syndrome (nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome), Muir-Torre syndrome, Karnofsky performance scale.

Brain Biopsy: Op310 >>

 

Brain Tumors (TREATMENT): Onc3 >>

incl. Cavitron ultrasonic aspirator (CUSA), CO2 laser, P-glycoprotein, methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT), BBB disruption, specific drugs (temozolomide), fluorescence-guided resection (s. chemonavigation, 5-ALA)

Surgical Removal Technique (brain tumors): Op340 >>

 

Brain Tumor Types

Astrocytomas: Onc10 >>

incl. Kernohan-Sayre grade, St. Anne/Mayo grade, Bailey and Cushing classification, MGMT methylation, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-1 mutation, subependymal giant-cell astrocytoma (SEGA), pilocytic astrocytoma,  pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA), glioblastoma multiforme, gliomatosis cerebri, brainstem gliomas, optic pathway glioma, gliosarcoma.

 

Oligodendrogliomas: Onc12 >>

 

Ependymoma, subependymoma: Onc14 >>

 

Choroid Plexus Tumors: Onc16 >>

incl. choroid plexus papilloma, choroid plexus carcinoma.

 

Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors: Onc18 >>

incl. medulloblastoma, cerebellar mutism (posterior fossa syndrome), Collin law, ependymoblastoma.

 

Neuroblastic Tumors: Onc20 >>

incl. neuroblastoma, Hutchinson syndrome, Pepper syndrome, “blueberry muffin” baby, opsoclonus - myoclonus paraneoplastic syndrome (myoclonic encephalopathy), International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS), Evans staging system, Shimada histopathologic classification, Joshi histopathologic classification, ganglioneuroma (ganglioma), gangliocytoma (s. central ganglioneuroma), atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor

 

Neuronal and Mixed Tumors: Onc22 >>

incl. (central) neurocytoma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, ganglioglioma, gangliocytoma, Lhermitte-Duclos disease (dysplastic gangliocytoma of cerebellum).

 

Vascular Tumors: Onc24 >>

incl. hemangioblastoma, Lindau tumor, von Hippel-Lindau disease, hemangiopericytoma.

 

Pituitary Tumors: Onc26 >>

incl. pituitary adenomas, pituitary carcinomas, empty sella syndrome, pituitary apoplexy, craniopharyngioma.

anterior pituitary disorders, prolactinoma: 2738 >>

ADH disorders: 2516 >>

 

Pineal Region Tumors, Pineal Parenchymal Tumors: Onc28 >>

incl. pinealoma (pineoblastoma, pineocytoma).

 

Germ Cell Tumors: Onc29 >>

incl. germinoma (intracranial seminoma), embryonal cell carcinoma, teratoma, rhabdoid tumor, yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus tumor), choriocarcinoma.

 

Dermoid tumor, Epidermoid tumor (s. cholesteatoma), Colloid Cysts, Arachnoid Cysts, Neurenteric Cyst, Lipoma, Mucocele: Onc30 >>

 

Brain Metastases: Onc32 >>

incl. CNS melanoma, neurocutaneous melanosis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) classes

 

Leptomeningeal Metastases (s. Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis, Neoplastic Meningitis): Onc34 >>

incl. intrathecal therapy.

 

Primary CNS Lymphoma: Onc36 >>

incl. intravascular malignant lymphomatosis (s. neoplastic angioendotheliosis, angiotropic lymphoma), neurolymphomatosis.

 

Meningioma: Onc38 >>

incl. Simpson grades.

 

Skull Tumors: Onc40 >>

incl. osteoma, osteoid osteoma, ossifying fibroma, osteoblastoma, osteosarcoma, chondromas (enchondroma, juxtacortical chondroma, osteochondroma), chondromyxoid fibromas, chondroblastomas, chondrosarcoma, desmoplastic fibroma, fibrosarcoma, giant cell granuloma, nonossifying fibroma, xanthoma, Ewing sarcoma, giant cell tumor (osteoclastoma), eosinophilic granuloma, hemangioma, lymphangioma, angiosarcoma, esthesioneuroblastoma, fibrous dysplasia, Paget disease, aneurysmal bone cysts, multiple myeloma, hyperostoses, hyperostosis frontalis interna, metastases.

 

Chordoma, ecchordosis physaliphora: Onc42 >>

 

 

Spinal & Vertebral tumors

Intramedullary Spinal Tumors: Onc50 >>

incl. Fincher syndrome, ependymoma, astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, developmental tumors [dermoid, epidermoid, teratoma], hemangioblastoma, lipoma, subependymoma, ganglioglioma, intramedullary schwannoma, neurofibroma, metastases

 

Intradural Extramedullary Spinal Tumors: Onc54 >>

incl. spinal cysts (arachnoid, ependymal, enterogenous, branchiogenic), meningioma, lipoma,

neurofibroma, schwannoma, leptomeningeal metastases.

 

Extradural Spinal Tumors, Vertebral Tumors: Onc56 >>

incl. enostosis, osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, osteosarcoma (osteogenic sarcoma), giant cell tumor (osteoclastoma), osteochondroma (solitary osteocartilaginous exostosis), chondrosarcoma, aneurysmal bone cyst, Ewing sarcoma, multiple myeloma, solitary plasmacytoma, eosinophilic granuloma, hemangioma, angiolipoma, metastases.

cervical chordoma: Onc42 >>

 

 

Nerve tumors

Nerve Tumors: Onc60 >>

incl. schwannoma (neurilemoma, neurinoma), Enneking staging system, neurofibroma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, nerve sheath fibrosarcoma, malignant schwannoma, triton tumor, peripheral nerve metastases, lipofibromatosis of median nerve.

 

Schwannomas of Cranial Nerves: Onc62 >>

incl. cerebellopontine angle tumors, vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma), facial schwannoma, trigeminal schwannoma, hypoglossal schwannoma.

 

Paragangliomas: Onc64 >>

incl. paraganglia, chemodectoma, glomus jugulare tumor, glomus tympanicum tumor, Fisch classification, Brown sign.

 

 

 

Op. Operative Techniques

CSF sampling & shunting >>

Cranial >>

Spine >>

Nerves >>

Non-neurosurgical (but used in neurosurgery) >>

 

 

General Principles of Perioperative Neurosurgery: Op120 >>

incl. medications, nausea and vomiting, feeding, minimally invasive hemodynamic monitoring (Vigileo monitor), postoperative pain, postoperative infections

 

General Principles of Operative Neurosurgery: Op100 >>

incl. neuroanesthesia, hemostasis, medications, patient positioning, prep

intraoperative electrophysiologic monitoring: D25 >>

 

Surgical Instruments, Materials: Op140 >>

incl. needles, Hemo-Seal (HS-7), hemostatic materials, Gelfoam, liquid fibrin, liquid thrombin, LeGoo gel, Raplixa, electrocoagulation, nonstick bipolar, skin substitutes, SurgiMend, AlloDerm, bone substitutes, polyetheretherketone (PEEK), dural sealants, Dura Seal, Adherus, BioGlue, Tisseel, Evicel, dural substitutes, SepraFilm, DuraGen, Synthecel, Dura-Guard, bone growth stimulators, head holders, Mayfield Infinity pediatric head holder, Integra radiolucent Mayfield, pins (Doro, pediatric pins), cranial plating, cranioplasty, drills and drill bits, rongeurs, retractors, Vycor retractor, NICO BrainPath retractor, Budde® Halo Retractor, CNS parenchyma ablators, CUSA, Myriad, AXIS table, ventricular endoscopes (NeuroPen, Little Lotta, Paediscope).

 

Neuronavigation, Stereotactic Neurosurgery: Op30 >>

incl. frame-based stereotaxis, frameless stereotaxis, fiducials, Medtronic Stealth (Synergy Cranial, AxiEM, Frame Link), Stryker.

 

Interventional Neuroradiology (Endovascular Procedures), Catheter Angiography: D61 >>

incl. conventional angiography, digital subtraction angiography (DSA), biplane angiography, 3D rotational angiography, spinal angiography, ICG (indocyanine green) angiography.

intracarotid amobarbital (Wada) test: E11 >>

 

 

CSF sampling & shunting

Lumbar Puncture (s. Spinal Tap): Op3 >>

incl. Queckenstedt test, Tobey-Ayer test, lumbar drain.

 

Other CSF Sampling Procedures: Op5 >>

incl. cisternal (s. suboccipital) puncture, lateral cervical puncture, ventricular puncture.

 

External Ventricular Drainage (EVD, Ventriculostomy): Op6 >>

incl. Kocher's point, Paine's point, Frazier burr hole.

 

CSF Access Implantable Devices: Op9 >>

incl. Ommaya® reservoir, Leroy device.

 

CSF Shunting Procedures: Op10 >>; may also check S60 >>

incl. ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt, brands of valves, ventriculo-atrial (VA) shunt, shunt revision, ventricular endoscopy, endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), septostomy, lumbo-peritoneal (LP) shunt.

 

 

Cranial

Brain biopsy:

tissue techniques, histological findings: D34 >>

surgical technique, perioperative care: Op310 >>

 

Epilepsy surgeries – see “Epilepsy”

 

Craniotomies: Op300 >>

incl. awake

 

Transsphenoidal Pituitary Resection: Op305 >>

 

Cranial remodeling: Dev15 >>

 

Trauma Procedures: Op320 >>

incl. scalp wounds, skull fractures, leptomeningeal cyst, burr hole washout of subdural hematoma, acute SDH / EDH evacuation, decompressive craniectomies, penetrating brain injuries.

subdural tap through fontanel: TrH13 >>

 

Cranioplasty: Op330 >>

 

Brain Tumors: Op340 >>

 

Laser Ablation: Op345 >>

 

Cerebrovascular (open techniques): Op350 >>

incl. aneurysm clipping, AVM extirpation, carotid endarterectomy, EDAS (encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis)

temporal artery biopsy: Op358 >>

 

DBS: Op360 >>

 

 

Spine

Surgery of Cervical Spine: Op210 >>

Surgery of Thoracolumbosacral Spine: Op220 >>

Surgery of Syringomyelia: Op230 >>

Cord Stimulators, Intrathecal Pumps: Op240 >>

Surgery of Cord and Spine Developmental Anomalies: Op250 >>

Surgery of Spinal Tumors: Op260 >>

Spinal Anesthesia (s. Subarachnoid Block), Epidural Anesthesia: Op7 >>

 

 

Nerves

Surgery of Cranial Nerves: Op400 >>

incl. trigeminal neuralgia.

 

Surgery of Peripheral Nerves: Op450 >>

incl. surgery for PNS trauma, neurolysis (carpal tunnel, ulnar nerve)

Nerve biopsy:

tissue techniques, histological findings: D32 >>

surgical technique, perioperative care: Op450 >>

 

Blockades of Peripheral Nerves: Op460 >>

incl. n. occipitalis major, minor, n. supraorbitalis, n. supratrochlearis, n. infraorbitalis, n. mentalis, cervical plexus (superficial block), brachial plexus, n. suprascapularis, n. ulnaris, n. medianus, n. radialis, nn. digitales manus, n. intercostalis, n. ilioinguinalis, n. iliohypogastricus, sacral (caudal) epidural block, n. pudendus (saddle block), n. femoralis, n. cutaneus femoris lateralis, n. ischiadicus, n. tibialis, n. suralis, n. saphenus, n. peroneus, nn. digitales pedis.

 

 

Non-neurosurgical (but used in neurosurgery)

Tracheostomy, Coniotomy: Op900 >>

Vascular Access: Op910 >>

 

 

 

Ped. Pediatrics

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), ALTE (apparent life-threatening event): Ped1 >>

 

Child Maltreatment (Abuse and Neglect): Ped3 >>

incl. corporal punishment, failure to thrive, female genital mutilation.

 

Developmental Delay: Ped5 >>

incl. speech delay, cerebral palsy, spastic hemiparesis (hemiplegia), spastic diparesis (diplegia), s. Little disease, spastic quadriplegia, hypotonic cerebral palsy, dyskinetic cerebral palsy, ataxic cerebral palsy.

 

Differential Diagnosis of Pediatric Neurodisorders: Ped7 >>

 

Perinatal Period: Ped9 >>

incl. Apgar score, new Ballard score, circumcision, prematurity, postdatism, postmaturity, small-for-gestational-age (SGA, dysmaturity, intrauterine growth restriction, IUGR), symmetric growth retardation, asymmetric (head sparing) growth retardation, large-for-gestational-age (LGA), Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, perinatal asphyxia, newborn resuscitation, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (incl. status marmoratus, Sarnat classification, multicystic encephalomalacia), neonatal hypothermia, birth trauma (subependymal / intraventricular hemorrhage, caput succedaneum, cephalhematoma, subgaleal hematoma, cranial nerve injury, brachial plexus injuries, fractures, soft-tissue injuries), periventricular / intraventricular hemorrhage (PVH-IVH), periventricular hemorrhagic venous infarction, periventricular leukomalacia (PVL).

newborn screening: 4800 >> (public health)

 

Infancy, Childhood, Adolescence: Ped11 >>

incl. nutrition, breastfeeding, human milk, colostrum, breast weaning, bottle feeding, formulas, starting solid foods, regurgitation, spitting mucus, underfeeding, refusing food, overfeeding, growth, safety, sleeping, resistance to going to bed, awakening during night, diaper rash, intertrigo, teething, pacifier, crying, television, sports, recurrent pain syndromes (recurrent abdominal pain syndrome, headache, limb pain = "growing pains"), pediatric mortality.

 

erythematous flush (“boiled lobster”), cutis marmorata, acrocyanosis, harlequin dyschromic, mongolian spots, nevus flammeus (“port-wine stain”), erythema toxicum neonatorum, transient neonatal pustular melanosis: Exam11 >>

 

Psychosocial Pediatrics: Ped13 >>

incl. child care (s. day care, nursery school, babysitting), foster care, adoption, divorce, malformed infant, death (infant death, death of family member or friend).

 

 

 

Pha. Phacomatoses (neurocutaneous disorders)

Phacomatoses (GENERAL): Pha1 >>

incl. Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, Rud syndrome, Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, proteus syndrome.

 

Neurofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen’s disease): Pha3 >>

incl. meningioangiomatosis, schwannosis, glial hamartia (microhamartomas), schwannomatosis

 

Tuberous Sclerosis (Bourneville’s disease): Pha5 >>

 

Sturge-Weber syndrome (encephalotrigeminal angiomatosis): Pha7 >>

incl. Roach Scale classification.

 

 

 

PN. Peripheral Neuropathies

surgery, biopsy, blockades of peripheral nerves → see “Op. Operative Techniques” >>

PNS demyelination → see “Dem. Demyelinating Disorders” >>

 

GENERAL: PN1 >>

incl. polyneuropathy, mononeuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex, radiculopathy, dorsal root ganglion syndromes (sensory ganglionitis), food supplements for reversing neuropathies.

 

vasculitic neuropathies: PN11 >>

critical illness polyneuropathy: PN11 >>

toxic neuropathies: PN11 >>

paraneoplastic neuropathies: Onc66 >>

 

Hereditary Neuropathies: PN3 >>

hereditary sensory and motor neuropathies (hsmn): PN3 >>

incl. hsmn i (s. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 1, peroneal muscular atrophy), Roussy-Levy disease, hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (s. hnpp, tomaculous neuropathy), hsmn ii (s. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 2), hsmn iii (s. Dejerine-Sottas disease), cmt 4

hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (hsan): PN3 >>

incl. hsan i (hereditary sensory radicular neuropathy), hsan ii (congenital sensory neuropathy), hsan iii (familial dysautonomia, Riley-Day syndrome), hsan iv (familial sensory neuropathy with anhidrosis, congenital insensitivity to pain), hsan v (congenital sensory neuropathy with selective loss of small myelinated fibers).

hereditary sensory neuropathies (hsn): PN3 >>

giant axonal neuropathy, familial amyloid polyneuropathy: PN3 >>

 

Compressive Neuropathies (s. Entrapment Neuropathies, Tunnel Syndromes): PN5 >>

incl. n. medianus, carpal tunnel syndrome, n. ulnaris, cubital tunnel syndrome, n. radialis, Saturday night palsy, radial tunnel (s. posterior interosseus nerve) syndrome, thoracic outlet syndrome, n. suprascapularis, n. ischiadicus, piriformis syndrome, sciatica, n. peroneus, n. tibialis, tarsal tunnel syndrome, meralgia paresthetica, Morton’s neuroma.

deep posterior compartment syndrome (n. tibialis): A22 (7)

anterior compartment syndrome (n. peroneus profundus): A22 (9)

 

Trauma of Peripheral Nerves: PN7 >>

incl. traumatic neuroma (also see A5 >>), neurapraxia, axonotmesis, neurotmesis, neurorrhaphy, cable grafts.

surgical treatment: Op450 >>

 

Plexopathies: PN9 >>

incl. brachial plexopathies, Duchenne-Erb palsy, Dejerine-Klumpke palsy, neuralgic amyotrophy (s. brachial plexitis, Parsonage-Turner syndrome, shoulder-girdle syndrome), lumbosacral plexopathies.

brachial plexus birth trauma: Ped9 >>

 

 

 

Psy. Psychiatry & Behavioral Science

Psychiatry Basics >>

Psychotic disorders >>

Mood (Affective) disorders >>

Substance-related disorders >>

Other disorders >>

 

 

genetics of behavioral and psychiatric disorders: 3777-3780 (genetics)

 

Psychaitry Basics

Behavioral Science Basics: Psy1 >>

incl. animal models and human behavior, motivation & consummatory behaviors (eating, hunger, drinking, sexual and reproductive behavior, sexual development, sexual behavior, aggression, self-stimulation of brain, animal models of substance abuse, conflict situations, animal models of psychiatric disorders, theories of mind [psychoanalytic (psychodynamic) theory, s. freudian theory, instincts (drives), psychosexual stages, Oedipus complex, id, ego, superego, psychoanalysis, learning theory (behaviorism), cognitive theory, psychosocial theory, biomedical theory], life cycle, death and dying, social and family behavior, biopsychosocial model, interpersonal behavior, large group behavior, family behavior (marriage, divorce, single-parent families, family life cycle), human sexuality.

 

Psychiatric Examination: Psy3 >>

incl. psychological testing (s. psychometric evaluation), personality tests.

 

Psychiatry (general): Psy5 >>

incl. definitions (mood, affect, anxiety, thought process [circumstantiality, tangentiality, derailment, clang associations, blocking, flight of ideas, confabulation, echolalia, perseveration, verbigeration, word salad, neologisms], thought content, hallucinations, hallucinosis, illusion, delusion, frontal lobe syndrome), classification of mental disorders (dsm), therapies (psychotherapy, hypnosis, family therapy, psychopharmacology, electroconvulsive therapy ect), psychiatric emergency (crisis, aggressive patient), legal issues, pediatric aspects (circular behavioral pattern, temper tantrum, bonding, attachment, hospitalism, anaclitic depression, vulnerable child syndrome, thumb sucking).

 

 

Psychotic disorders

Psychosis: Psy9 >>

 

Neuroleptics (s. Antipsychotics, Major Tranquilizers): Psy9 >>

incl. chlorpromazine, prochlorperazine, thioridazine, mesoridazine, pimozide, perphenazine, trifluoperazine, fluphenazine, thiothixene, chlorprothixene, haloperidol, droperidol, loxapine, molindone, clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, aripiprazole, paliperidone.

neuroleptic motor side effects (incl. neuroleptic malignant syndrome): Mov25 >>

 

Schizophrenia: Psy11 >>

incl. catatonia.

 

Schizophrenia-like Disorders: Psy13 >>

incl. brief psychotic disorder, delusional disorder (incl. erotomania, psychose passionnelle, Clerambault syndrome, old maid's insanity, conjugal paranoia, Othello syndrome, pathological / morbid jealousy, monosymptomatic hypochondriasis, Capgras syndrome, Fregoli syndrome, Cotard syndrome), shared psychotic disorder (s. folie deux), schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder, symbiotic psychosis, substance-induced psychotic disorder.

 

 

Mood (s. Affective) disorders

Mood (s. Affective) Disorders: Psy17 >>

incl. major depressive disorder, melancholia, suicide, dysthymic disorder, bipolar i disorder (s. classic manic-depression), bipolar ii disorder, cyclothymic disorder, seasonal affective disorder.

depression in dying patient: 4807 >>

 

Antidepressants s. Thymoleptics: Psy15 >>

incl. tricyclic TCA (imipramine, desipramine, amitriptyline, nortriptyline, protriptyline, doxepin, trimipramine, clomipramine, amoxapine, maprotiline), monoamine oxidase inhibitors MAOI (iproniazid, tranylcypromine, phenelzine, isocarboxazid, moclobemide, Befloxatone, deprenyl), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRI (fluoxetine, paroxetine, fluvoxamine, sertraline, citalopram, escitalopram, trazodone, nefazodone), selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors SSNRI (venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine), dopamine-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (bupropion), other antidepressants (mirtazapine, St. John's wort, buspirone).

 

Mood stabilizers: Psy15 >>

incl. lithium carbonate, anticonvulsants.

 

 

Substance-related disorders

Alcohol: Psy21 >>

incl. minor alcohol withdrawal (“shakes”, hangover), delirium tremens (severe alcohol withdrawal), alcohol withdrawal seizures ("rum fits"), alcohol hallucinosis, chronic alcoholism, disulfiram, naltrexone, nalmefene, acamprosate, topiramate, alcoholic dementia, alcoholic cerebellar degeneration, alcoholic myopathy, alcoholic neuropathy, Korsakoff psychosis, Wernicke encephalopathy, fetal alcohol syndrome.

 

Substance-related Disorders: Psy23 >>

incl. controlled substances, substance use disorders, substance dependence (tolerance, withdrawal / abstinence), substance abuse, opioids, methadone, lofexidine, buprenorphine, l-α-acetylmethadol s. laam, levomethadyl acetate, nicotine, smoking cessation, varenicline, amphetamines, cocaine, cannabis (marijuana, hashish, ganja, bhang), hallucinogens (psychotomimetics, psychedelics), lysergic acid diethylamide (lsd), psilocybin, mescaline, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (stp, dom), dimethyl-tryptamine (dmt), phencyclidine (pcp, "angel dust"), ketamine (“k”, special k), gamma hydroxybutyrate (ghb, “g”), inhalants, methylxanthines (caffeine, theobromine, theophylline, aminophylline).

 

 

Other disorders

Anxiety Disorders: Psy25 >>

incl. panic disorder, panic attack, generalized anxiety disorder (gad), obsessive-compulsive disorder (ocd), obsessions, compulsion, rituals, phobic disorders, school refusal (s. school phobia), posttraumatic stress disorder (ptsd), acute stress disorder (asd), adjustment disorder, situational anxiety, anxiety about death, anxiety about mutilation, loss of prowess, loss of attractiveness, anxiety about loss of self-esteem, separation anxiety, stranger anxiety, anxiety about loss of control, anxiety about dependency, anxiety about intimacy, anxiety about being punished, signal anxiety.

 

Sexual Disorders: Psy19 >>

incl. sexual identity, gender identity, gender role, sexual orientation, libido, masturbation, homosexuality, promiscuity / hypersexuality, sexual dysfunction (hypoactive sexual desire disorder, Gastaut-Geschwind syndrome, sexual aversion disorder, female sexual arousal disorder, inhibited female orgasm, inhibited male orgasm, premature ejaculation, dyspareunia, vaginismus), paraphilias (exhibitionism, fetishism, voyeurism, frotteurism, pedophilia, sexual masochism, sexual sadism, telephone scatologia, necrophilia, zoophilia), gender identity disorders (transsexualism), premenstrual dysphoric disorder (premenstrual syndrome [pms], late luteal phase dysphoric disorder).

 

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Psy27 >>

incl. aprosexia, methylphenidate, dexmethylphenidate, dextroamphetamine, mixed amphetamine salts, pemoline, atomoxetine, lisdexamfetamine dimesylate.

 

Autistic Spectrum Disorders (s. Pervasive Developmental Disorders): Psy29 >>

incl. autistic disorder (autism), Asperger disorder, Rett disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, PDD not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS).

 

Learning Disabilities: Psy31 >>

incl. dyslexia, developmental language disorder (dysphasia), phonologic dyslexia, surface dyslexia, dysgraphia, dysorthographia, poor handwriting, dyscalculia, ageometria, anarithmia, dysnomia.

 

Mental Retardation: Psy33 >>

 

Personality Disorders: Psy35 >>

incl. type a personality, paranoid personality, schizoid personality, schizotypal personality, antisocial personality, borderline personality, histrionic personality, narcissistic personality, avoidant personality, dependent personality, obsessive-compulsive personality.

 

Somatoform (s. Psychosomatic) Disorders: Psy37 >>

incl. sick role, somatization disorder, conversion disorder (s. hysteria), mass hysteria (epidemic hysteria), body dysmorphic disorder (s. dysmorphophobia), hypochondriasis, (somatoform, s. psychogenic) pain disorder, factitious disorder, Münchhausen syndrome, Münchhausen syndrome by proxy (s. factitious disorder not otherwise specified), malingering, placebo response.

 

Eating Disorders: Psy39 >>

incl. anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, pica, infant rumination disorder, failure to thrive.

 

Elimination (Toileting) Disorders: Psy41 >>

incl. enuresis, encopresis.

 

Disruptive Behavioral Disorders: Psy43 >>

incl. oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder.

 

Impulse Control Disorders: Psy45 >>

incl. intermittent explosive disorder (s. episodic dyscontrol syndrome), kleptomania, pyromania, pyrolagnia, trichotillomania, trichophagy, pathological gambling.

 

Dissociative Disorders: Psy47 >>

incl. dissociative amnesia, depersonalization disorder, dissociative fugue, dissociative identity disorder (s. multiple personality disorder).

 

Violence: Psy49 >>

incl. bullying, family (domestic) violence – spousal abuse.

 

Uncertain Syndromes: Psy51 >>

incl. Gulf War syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome (idiopathic environmental intolerance), chronic fatigue syndrome.

 

 

 

Rx. Treatment modalities

Drugs >>

Radiotherapy, Interventional Radiology >>

 

 

Drugs

Benzodiazepines: Rx1 >>

incl. chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, flurazepam, clonazepam, clobazam, clorazepate, halazepam, prazepam, nitrazepam, quazepam, lorazepam, temazepam, alprazolam, estazolam, oxazepam, triazolam, midazolam*, benzodiazepine antagonists (flumazenil), benzodiazepine overdose.

*also see 3905 (6) (intensive care)

Barbiturates: Rx2 >>

incl. phenobarbital, barbital, pentobarbital, secobarbital, amobarbital, hexobarbital, butabarbital, thiopental, barbiturate overdose.

 

Other Sedatives-Anxiolytics-Hypnotics: Rx3 >>

incl. clomethiazole (s. chlormethiazole), ramelteon, buspirone, chloral hydrate, chloral alcoholate, meprobamate, chloral betaine, paraldehyde, glutethimide, ethanol (ethyl alcohol), dexmedetomidine, methocarbamol, zolpidem, zaleplon, zopiclone, eszopiclone.

 

Antibiotics: Inf1 >>

 

 

Radiology

general principles of radiotherapy: 1711 (1-3) >> (oncology)

 

Radiotherapy: Rx11 >>, Onc3 >>

incl. external beam radiation therapy, hyperfractionation, accelerated fractionation, stereotactic radiation, stereotactic radiosurgery (gamma knife), brachytherapy (interstitial / implanted radiation therapy), radiocolloidal solutions, transient radiation leukoencephalopathy, somnolence syndrome, transient radiation myelopathy, radiation necrosis, diffuse white matter injury, radiation myelopathy, radiation-induced vasculopathy, radiation optic neuropathy, radiation-induced neuropathy.

 

Interventional neuroradiology: D61 >>

 

 

 

S. Symptoms, Signs, Syndromes

Language, Speech >>

Memory, Learning >>

Dementias >>

Delirium >>

Sensory Disorders, Pain >>

Headache >>

Consciousness, Arousal, Awareness >>

Sleep, Alertness, Circadian Rhythms >>

CSF, ICP >>

 

 

Intracranial Calcification: S70 >>

 

Neurosarcoidosis: S72 >>

 

 

Language, Speech

physiology: S1 >>

language disorders: S2 >>, D1 >>

incl. aphasia, auditory aphasia (s. word deafness, auditory verbal agnosia), alexia (s. visual alexia, sensory alexia, visual aphasia, word blindness, alexia without agraphia), agraphia, aphemia (s. little Broca aphasia, cortical anarthria, speech apraxia), aprosody.

speech disorders: S3 >>

incl. dysphonia, dysarthria, mutism, phonic tics & vocalizations, reiterative speech disturbances (echolalia, palilalia, logoclonia, stutter).

 

 

Memory & Learning

memory physiology: S5 >>

memory testing: D1 >>

amnesias: S6 >>

incl. age-associated memory impairment, Korsakoff syndrome, transient global amnesia, factitious [psychogenic] amnesia.

 

 

Dementia (s. Chronic Organic Brain syndrome)

general: S10 >>

cortical dementias: S11 >>

incl. Alzheimer disease (drugs - tacrine, donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, memantine), Pick disease [frontotemporal dementia], ALS-dementia complex.

other dementias: S12 >>

incl. diffuse Lewy body disease, vascular dementia (multi-infarct dementia, Binswanger disease).

alcoholic dementia: Psy21 >>

 

 

Delirium (s. Acute Organic Brain syndrome, Acute Confusional state)

general: S15 >>

in dying patient: 4807 >>

 

Various Encephalopathies: S17 >>     

incl. posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), s. reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS).

hypertensive encephalopathy: 1349a >>

 

 

Sensory Disorders, Pain

Pain: S20 >>, A49 (2) >>

incl. nociceptive & neuropathic pain, hyperalgesia, allodynia, referred pain, sensitization of C-polymodal nociceptors, triple cold syndrome, central post-stroke syndrome (s. thalamic pain syndrome, Dejerine-Roussy syndrome), pain asymbolia, phantom limb pain, post-herpetic neuralgia, pain of spinal cord injury, cancer and terminal pain, complex regional pain syndromes (reflex sympathetic dystrophy, causalgia, shoulder-hand syndrome);

drugs (ziconotide, intrathecal alcohol);

physical therapy (infrared heat, hot packs, paraffin bath, hydrotherapy, diathermy, acupuncture, mechanotherapy, cervical traction, massage, cold);

electrical stimulation (incl. TENS), deep brain stimulation;

surgical procedures (rhizotomy, anterolateral cordotomy, commissural myelotomy, mesencephalic tractotomy, thalamotomy, stereotactic frontolimbic disconnections, drez [dorsal root entry zone] lesioning, sympathectomy, neurectomy).

 

Opioids: S21 >>, S20 >>, A4b >>

incl. opium, opiates, opioids, morphine, meperidine, methadone, fentanyl, sufentanil, alfentanil, remifentanil, heroin, hydromorphone, oxymorphone, levorphanol, codeine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, propoxyphene, diphenoxylate, tramadol, tapentadol, pentazocine, buprenorphine, nalorphine, nalbuphine, butorphanol, dezocine, naloxone, naltrexone, nalmefene, methylnaltrexone.

 

Other Sensory Disorders: S22 >>

incl. hypesthesia, hyperesthesia, paresthesia, dysesthesia.

psychogenic sensory disorders: D1 >>

 

 

Headache

general: S24 >>

incl. International Headache Society (IHS) classification,

 

Migraine: S25 >>

incl. cortical spreading depression (CSD) of Leão, teichopsia (s. fortification spectrum), status migrainosus, migraine with aura (classic migraine), migraine without aura, complicated migraine, basilar migraine, confusional migraine, hemiplegic migraine, ophthalmoplegic migraine, retinal migraine, abdominal migraine (s. cyclic vomiting syndrome), carotidynia (s. facial migraine), migrainous accompaniments (s. migraine equivalents), transformed migraine, malignant migraine, migralepsy, rebound headache

treatment: selective 5-HT1 agonists – triptans (sumatriptan, zolmitriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, almotriptan, frovatriptan, eletriptan), 5-HT1 agonists - ergot alkaloids (ergotamine, dihydroergotamine), Fiorinal, Treximet, feverfew (MigreLief)

prophylaxis: methysergide, cyproheptadine.

 

Tension-Type Headache (TTH): S26 >>

 

Cluster Headache, Chronic Paroxysmal Hemicrania, Hemicrania Continua: S27 >>

 

Other Headaches: S28 >>

incl. chronic daily headache, sexual headache, benign cough & exertional headache, cervicogenic headache & occipital neuralgia, hypnic headache.

 

 

Consciousness, Arousal, Awareness

general: S30 >>

incl. coma, stupor, obtundation, lethargy, sopor, drowsiness, psychogenic unresponsiveness, Glasgow coma scale, Glasgow-Liege scale, sedation scale, children coma scales, “doll’s eyes” (s. oculocephalic, oculogyric, cervico-ocular) reflex, oculovestibular reflex (caloric stimulation).

vegetative state: S32 >>

brain death: S34 >>

 

 

Sleep, Alertness, Circadian Rhythms

physiology: D27 >>

GENERAL (sleep disorders): S40 >>

infant sleep disorders: Ped11 >>

Insomnias: S42 >>

Excessive Daytime Somnolence: S44 >>

incl. Epworth sleepiness scale, narcolepsy (drugs – modafinil, armodafinil, sodium oxybate), cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic & hypnopompic hallucinations, idiopathic (primary) hypersomnia, Kleine-Levin syndrome, sleep apnea, upper airway resistance syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder (s. nocturnal myoclonus), restless legs syndrome.

Parasomnias: S46 >>

incl. sleep terrors (s. pavor nocturnus), sleepwalking (s. somnambulism), confusional arousals, hypnic jerks (s. sleep starts), rhythmic movement disorder, sleep talking (s. somniloquy), nocturnal leg cramps, rem sleep behavioral disorder, nightmares, hypnogenic (s. nocturnal) paroxysmal dystonia, sleep bruxism, sleep enuresis.

Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders (s. Chronobiological Disorders): S48 >>

incl. time zone change (jet lag) syndrome, shift work sleep disorder, delayed sleep phase syndrome, advanced sleep phase syndrome, non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder, irregular sleep-wake pattern.

 

 

CSF, ICP

Intracranial Pressure: S50 >>

intracranial hypertension: S50 >>

incl. Cushing reflex, ICP monitoring (ventriculostomy, subarachnoid bolts, intraparenchymal devices), ICP waveforms, mannitol (also see S52 >>), pentobarbital coma.

cerebral edema (vasogenic, cytotoxic, interstitial-hydrocephalic): S52 >>

in brain tumors: Onc1 >>, Onc3 >>

brain herniation: S54 >>

incl. central (s. downward transtentorial) herniation, uncal (s. lateral mass) herniation, Kernohan notch phenomenon, Duret hemorrhages, cingulate (s. subfalcine) herniation, cerebellar tonsillar herniation, upward transtentorial herniation, herniation after lumbar puncture, transcalvarial herniation.

idiopathic intracranial hypertension (s. pseudotumor cerebri): S56 >>

intracranial hypotension, low pressure headache: S58 >>

incl. post-LP headache (also see Op3 >>), orthostatic headache, caffeine sodium benzoate, epidural blood patch.

 

Hydrocephalus (s. Hydrocephaly): S60 >>

incl. X-linked aqueductal stenosis, Macewen sign, “setting sun” sign, benign pericerebral effusion.

CSF diversion procedures (ventricular shunting): S60 >>

incl. third ventriculostomy, septostomy, ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting, ventriculoatrial  (VA) shunting, ventriculopleural shunting, Torkildsen (s. internal) shunts, lumboperitoneal shunts, transplantation of vascularized omentum, slit ventricle syndrome.

normal-pressure hydrocephalus: S62 >>

 

CSF leaks: S64 >>

incl. rhinorrhea, otorrhea.

 

 

 

Spin. Spinal disorders

Anatomic localization of motor symptoms, UMN & LMN lesions: Mov3 >>

Anatomic localization of sensory symptoms: S22 >>

Radiculopathy: PN1 >>

Spinal imaging: D70 >>

Spinal angiography: D61 >>

Infections of spinal cord and vertebrae: Inf3 >>, Inf5 >>, Inf7 >>

Tumors of spinal cord and vertebrae: Onc50 >>, Onc54 >>

Radiation myelopathy: Rx11 >>

Surgical Techniquessee “Spinal Surgical Techniques” >>

 

Spinal Syndromes (GENERAL): Spin1 >>, A50 (4-6) >>

incl. spinal structures affected in various disorders, spinal cord transection, spinal shock, spinal cord hemisection (Brown-Sequard syndrome), anterior 2/3 transection, extramedullary cord compression, Flatau law, central cord syndrome, cauda equina syndrome, conus medullaris syndrome, spinal complications, paroxysmal autonomic hyperreflexia (s. autonomic dysreflexia), spinal prognosis & rehabilitation, spinal cord independence measure (SCIM).

neurogenic bladder: 2590a >>

urinary incontinence: 2590 >>

 

Syringomyelia, hydromyelia, syrinx, syringobulbia: Spin5 >>

posttraumatic syrinx (s. traumatic syringomyelia): TrS5 >>

 

Transverse Myelopathy, transverse myelitis: Spin7 >>

incl. idiopathic acute transverse myelitis.

 

Degenerative Disc Disease: Spin11 >>

incl. disc bulge, disc herniation, disc protrusion, disc extrusion, disc rupture, Schmorl nodule, Spurling test, sciatica, percutaneous nucleotomy, papain chemonucleolysis, discectomy, foraminotomy, laminotomy, laminectomy, spinal fusion, artificial disc implantation.

 

Spondylosis: Spin13 >>

incl. pseudoclaudication (s. neurogenic intermittent claudication), ossification of posterior longi­tudinal ligament (OPLL), diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (s. diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, Forestier disease)

 

Spinal Stenosis: Spin15 >>

incl. laminoplasty, suspension laminotomy.

 

Spondylolysis, Spondylolisthesis: Spin17 >>

incl. Meyerding's classification.

 

Back pain (lumbago), Cervical Pain: Spin19 >>

incl. back exercises, back hygiene.

 

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS, Charcot's disease, Lou Gehrig's disease): Spin21 >>

incl. El Escorial World Federation of Neurology criteria, riluzole.

 

Spinal Muscular Atrophies (SMA, progressive spinal muscular atrophy, progressive spinal atrophy):

Spin23 >>

incl. Werdnig-Hoffman disease, Kugelberg-Welander disease, Kennedy's disease, Fazio-Londe disease, adult Tay-Sachs disease (hexosaminidase A deficiency).

 

Familial Spastic Paraplegias (s. hereditary spastic paraplegias), primary lateral sclerosis: Spin25 >>

 

Other Spinal Disorders: Spin27 >>

incl. stiff-person syndrome (s. stiff-man syndrome, Moersch-Woltman syndrome), epidural lipomatosis, lumbar adhesive arachnoiditis, progressive necrotizing myelopathy.

Foix-Alajouanine syndrome: Vas42 >>

 

Scoliosis: Spin29 >>

 

 

 

Tr. Trauma

Head Trauma >>

Facial Trauma >>

Spinal, Anterior Neck Trauma >>

 

 

peripheral NS trauma: PN7 >>

 

Head Trauma

general: TrH1 >>

incl. concussion, diffuse axonal injury (DAI), centripetal theory of A.K. Ommaya and T.A. Gennarelli, coup / contrecoup contusion and laceration, Waddell triad, heterotopic ossification, neurogenic pulmonary edema, encephalomalacia, traumatic hemiatrophy, pneumocele (s. pneumocephalus), postconcussion (s. posttraumatic) syndrome, functional independence measure (FIM), Glasgow outcome scale (GOS), disability rating scale (DRS), chronic traumatic encephalopathy (s. dementia pugilistica, punch-drunk syndrome), second impact syndrome.

posttraumatic CSF leaks: S64 >>

posttraumatic meningitis: Inf3 >>

 

PEDIATRIC Head Injury: TrH20 >>

incl. “shaken baby” syndrome.

birth trauma: Ped9 >>

 

Skull Fractures: TrH5 >>

incl. sutural diastasis (s. diastatic fracture), ping-pong fractures, leptomeningeal cyst (s. growing fracture).

 

Carotid-Cavernous Fistula: TrH9 >>

incl. traumatic AV fistula.

 

Epidural Hematoma: TrH11 >>

incl. emergency exploratory burr holes (diagnostic burr holes), clot removal operation (incl. “question mark” skin flap, “horse shoe” skin flap).

 

Subdural Hematoma: TrH13 >>

incl. hematoma evacuation, SDH in infants, subdural tap.

 

Subdural Hygroma (s. Subdural Effusion): TrH15 >>

 

 

Facial Trauma

GENERAL: TrH25 >>

 

Facial Trauma (frontal, orbital): TrH27 >>

incl. orbital rim fractures, orbital floor fracture (incl. “blow-out” fracture), orbital apex fractures, orbital roof (blow-in) fractures, frontal sinus fractures.

 

Facial Trauma (nasal, maxillary, zygomatic): TrH29 >>

incl. maxillofacial (middle face) fractures, Le Fort type i fracture (s. Guérin’s fracture, dentoalveolar dysjunction), Le Fort type ii fracture (s. pyramidal fracture of mid-face), Le Fort type iii fracture (s. craniofacial dysjunction), zygomatic fracture (zygomatic arch fracture, zygomaticomaxillary (tripod, trimalar) fracture), antral packing, soft-tissue injuries of nose (septal hematoma), nasal fracture, naso-orbital injuries, nasofrontoethmoidal complex fracture.

 

Facial Trauma (mandibular, dental): TrH31 >>

incl. mandibular fracture, temporomandibular joint dislocation, dental trauma (tooth fracture, tooth avulsion, tooth subluxation, tooth intrusion).

 

 

Spinal Trauma

Surgical Techniquessee “Spinal Surgical Techniques” >>

 

Vertebral Column Injury (GENERAL): TrS5 >>

 

Vertebral Column Injury (SPECIFIC INJURIES): TrS9 >>

incl. compression (wedge) fracture, vertebroplasty, kyphoplasty, teardrop fracture, clay shoveler's fracture, transverse ligament disruption, atlantoaxial dislocation, Grisel syndrome, odontoid fracture, atlas fracture, atlantooccipital dislocation, chance ("seat belt") fracture, facet dislocation / perch, fracture of transverse process, “slice” fracture-dislocation (s. torsional injury), posterior neural arch fracture, hangman’s fracture, whiplash injury (s. cervical sprain, hyperextension injury), burst fracture, Jefferson fracture, pathologic fractures.

 

Spinal Cord Injury: TrS5 >>

incl. posttraumatic myelomalacia, burning hands syndrome, American spinal injury association (ASIA) system, posttraumatic syrinx (s. traumatic syringomyelia), tongs (Gardner-Wells tongs, Crutchfield tongs), halo fixation.

 

Anterior Neck Injury: TrS21 >>

incl. carotid trauma, laryngotracheal trauma, esophageal trauma, pharyngeal trauma, strangulation (hanging).

 

 

 

Vas. Vascular disorders

Chapter contents have been reviewed by: Antanas Gvazdaitis, MD, PhD, President of Lithuanian Neurosurgical Society; Assoc. Professor and Chairman, Department of Neurosurgery at Klaipeda University Hospital (Lithuania)

 

Cerebral vascular disorders >>

Spinal vascular disorders >>

 

 

Cerebral vascular disorders

stroke definitions (s. cerebrovascular accident, brain apoplexy, brain attack): Vas1 >>

incl. stroke in pregnancy.

transient ischemic attack (TIA): Vas1 >>, Vas3 >>, Vas7 >>

reversible ischemic neurologic deficit (RIND): Vas1 >>

 

Ischemic Stroke:

etiology, pathophysiology, pathology, clinical features, diagnosis, special forms: Vas3 >>

incl. ischemic penumbra, pseudolaminar necrosis, reperfusion, cerebral autolysis, embolic stroke, fat embolism, air embolism, thrombotic stroke, lacunar stroke, état lacunaire (état criblé), miliary (Charcot-Bouchard) aneurysms, watershed (border zone) infarcts, completed stroke, stroke in evolution (s. progressive stroke, unstable stroke), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), Modified Rankin Scale (mRS), brachial syndrome, frontal opercular syndrome, Anton syndrome, pure hemiparesis, pure hemisensory stroke, sensorimotor stroke, ataxic hemiparesis, clumsy hand – dysarthria, dense MCA sign, stroke in pediatric / young patients, Dyke-Davidoff syndrome, crossed cerebellar diaschisis, hypoxic-anoxic injury

 

management, prevention, rehabilitation of ischemic stroke: Vas5 >>

incl. thrombolysis, mechanical thrombolysis / thrombectomy (mechanical embolus removal in cerebral ischemia (MERCI) system, AngioJet system, Latis laser device, endovascular photo acoustic recanalization (EPAR) laser, EKOS ultrasound thrombolytic infusion catheter), reperfusion injury, antiaggregants, anticoagulants, neuroprotective agents (dextromethorphan, selfotel, aptiganel, agent GV150526, magnesium, nalmefene, lubeluzole, clomethiazole, tirilazad, albumin, NXY-059, enlimomab, Hu23F2G, abciximab, citicoline, Fiblast).

 

carotid atherosclerotic stenosis: Vas7 >>

incl. amaurosis fugax (transient monocular blindness), carotid endarterectomy, carotid angioplasty & stenting, extracranial-intracranial bypass, superficial tem­poral to middle cerebral artery anastomosis (STA-MCA), luxury perfusion syndrome.

 

vertebrobasilar ischemia: Vas9 >>

incl. surgical vertebral artery reconstruction, subclavian steal, cerebroselective Ca antagonists (cinnarizine, flunarizine).

 

Vascular Dissection (carotid, vertebral): Vas11 >>

carotid trauma (blunt, penetrating): TrS21 >>

 

Cerebral Venous Thrombosis: Vas13 >>

incl. suppurative intracranial thrombophlebitis, venous sinus thrombosis, empty δ sign, dense triangle sign, cord sign, thrombectomy.

 

Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ICH): Vas20 >>

incl. intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), cerebral amyloid angiopathy, hematoma drainage, CLEAR trial, MISTIE trial.

traumatic ICH: TrH1 >>

 

Aneurysms, Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH): Vas25 >>

incl. false aneurysms (pseudoaneurysms), saccular (“berry”) aneurysms, fusiform (dolichoectatic) aneurysms, mycotic (infectious) aneurysms, dissecting aneurysms, infundibuli, vascular loops, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, Hunt & Hess scale, World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) Scale, Fisher grade, vasospasm, rebleeding, nimodipine, clazosentan, HHH therapy, surgical clipping, wrapping, trapping, Hunterian principle (proximal ligation of parent artery), aneurysm excision, endovascular coiling (Guglielmi detachable coil).

surgical aneurysm treatment (technique): Vas27 >>

traumatic aneurysms, traumatic SAH: TrH1 >>

 

Intracranial Vascular Malformations: Vas30 >>

incl. arteriovenous malformations (AVM), Wyburn-Mason syndrome (s. Bonnet-Dechaume-Blanc syndrome), cerebral proliferative angiopathy, superselective Wada testing, Spetzler-Martin grading system, cavernous angioma (s. cavernous hemangioma, cavernoma), capillary telangiectasia, developmental venous anomaly (s. venous angioma), dural arteriovenous malformation, vein of Galen malformation (ectasia / aneurysm), sinus pericranii.

 

Cerebral Vasculopathies: Vas35 >>

incl. fibromuscular dysplasia, moyamoya disease (basal occlusive disease with telangiectasia), encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis, cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), cerebral vasculitis, granulomatous angiitis of nervous system (GANS, primary angiitis of CNS, intracranial granulomatous arteritis, noninfectious granulomatous angiitis with predilection for CNS), reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes (RCVS)

hypertensive encephalopathy: 1349a >>

 

 

Spinal vascular disorders

Spinal Ischemic Stroke: Vas40 >>

 

Spinal Hemorrhages: Vas42 >>

incl. hematomyelia (spinal cord hematoma), spinal SAH, spinal epidural hemorrhage, spinal subdural hemorrhage.

 

Spinal Vascular Malformations: Vas42 >>

incl. spinal dural AV fistula (s. radiculomeningeal fistula), Foix-Alajouanine syndrome (s. subacute necrotizing myelitis, angiodysgenetic necrotizing myelopathy), telangiectasias, cavernous malformations, spinal AVMs, Cobb syndrome (s. cutaneomeningospinal angiomatosis).

 

 

 

Veg. Vegetative (Autonomic NS) disorders

general (classification, etiologies, clinical features, instrumental diagnosis): Veg1 >>

incl. gustatory sweating and flushing, Pourfour du Petit syndrome, harlequin syndrome, paroxysmal autonomic hyperactivity, congenital insensitivity to pain and anhidrosis.

 

Disorders: Veg3 >>

incl. pure autonomic failure (PAF, s. chronic postganglionic autonomic insufficiency), Bradbury-Eggleston syndrome, dopamine-β-hydroxylase deficiency, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS), idiopathic orthostatic hypotension, hypothalamic syndromes.

autonomic dysreflexia (s. paroxysmal autonomic hyperreflexia): Spin1 >>

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Direct Links to Pages

A. Neuroscience Basics (anatomy, histology, physiology, development)

 

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A3. Neuron

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A4a. Synapsis

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A4b. Neurochemistry

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A5. Pathologic Reactions of Neurons

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A6. Glia

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A7 (5). Myelination Timetable

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A8. Blood-brain barrier (BBB)

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A13 (1a). General nervous system development

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A13 (5a). Spinal Cord development

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A15. PNS anatomy, histology, physiology

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A17. Sensory Receptors

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A18. Reflex

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A20 (10). Ulnar Nerve

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A20 (12). Median Nerve

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A22 (8). Peroneal Nerve

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A34. Autonomic Neurochemistry

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A35. Autonomic Nervous System Pharmacology

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A40. Meninges

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A46 (5a). Spinal Cord - somatic motor system (motor units)

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A50 (2b). Rubrospinal Tract

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A50 (2c). Vestibulospinal Tract

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A55 (8). Corticonuclear (corticobulbar) fibers

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A59. Brain Stem LESIONS

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A60. Muscle Coordination

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A61. Postural Control

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A70 (3b) Skull foramina for trigeminal branches (in face)

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A73. Topographic Anatomy of CN7

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A79. Taste

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A103. Basal Ganglia Physiology

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A110. Diencephalon

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A121. Hypothalamus Function

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A135 (8a-b). Olfactory Physiology

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A136. Nucleus basalis of Meynert

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A137. Amygdala

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A138. Hippocampus

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A139. Instinctual Behavior, Emotions

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A155 (3-4). Cortical Sensory Physiology

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A201. Embryogenesis of CNS blood vessels

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A203. Blood Supply of SPINAL CORD

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A205. Blood Supply of BRAIN (arteries)

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A207. Blood Supply of BRAIN (veins)

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A211. Cerebrovascular PHYSIOLOGY

 

 


 

 

CN. Cranial Neuropathies

 

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CN0. Multiple Cranial Nerve Lesions

 

individual cranial nerve disorders

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CN1. Olfactory Disorders

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CN5. Trigeminal Nerve Disorders

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CN7. Facial Nerve Disorders

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CN9-10. Glossopharyngeus and Vagus Disorders

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CN11-12. Accessory and Hypoglossus Disorders

 

 

 

D. Diagnostics

 

 

physical examination

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D1. Neurologic Examination

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D1ear. Otologic Examination

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D1eye. Ophthalmologic Examination

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D2. Mini-Mental Status examination (Folstein)

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D3. Mini-Mental Status examination (Halstead-Reitan)

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D5. Pediatric Neurologic Examination

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D10. Mental Status examination

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D12. Neuropsychological testing

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D19. Principles of Instrumental Neurodiagnosis

 

neurophysiology

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D20. EMG

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D22. Nerve Conduction Studies

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D25. Evoked Potentials

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D27. EEG, Alertness, Sleep

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D29. Magnetoencephalography

 

biopsies, csf

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D30. Muscle Biopsy and Serum Markers

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D32. Nerve Biopsy

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D34. Brain Biopsy

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D40. Cerebrospinal Fluid

 

Neuroimaging

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D45. Neuroimaging (general)

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D47. X-ray

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D49. CT

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D51. MRI

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D53. Metabolic Neuroimaging (PET, MRS)

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D55. Pneumoencephalography

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D57. Ultrasound

 

Neurovascular Examination

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D60. Neurovascular Examination (general)

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D61. Neuroangiography

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D62. Doppler

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D64. CTA, MRA

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D66. rCBF Examination (xenon, SPECT, fMRI)

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D68. Carotid Occlusion Studies

 

Spinal Examination

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D70. Spinal Imaging

 

 

 

Dem. Demyelinating Disorders

 

 

demyelination of PNS

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Dem1. PNS demyelination

 

demyelination of CNS

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Dem3. CNS demyelination (general)

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Dem5. Multiple Sclerosis

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Dem7. MS-related Disorders

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Dem9. CNS complications of Viral Infections and Vaccines

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Dem11. Leukodystrophies

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Dem13. Metabolic Demyelinations

 

 

 

Dev. Developmental Disorders

 

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Dev1. Congenital Anomalies (general)

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Dev3. Neural Tube Disorders

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Dev5. Spinal Cord Anomalies

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Dev7. Brain Anomalies

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Dev9. Cranial & Vertebral Anomalies

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Dev15. Cranial Remodeling (surgical techniques)

 

 

 

E. Epilepsy & Seizures

 

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E1. Epilepsy

Definitions, Epidemiology, Etiology, Pathophysiology, Classifications, Clinical Features, Diagnosis

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E3. Antiepileptic Drugs

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E5. Treatment Principles

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E7. Status Epilepticus

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E9. Epileptic Syndromes

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E11. Surgical Treatment

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E13. Intracranial Electrodes, Cortical Mapping

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E15. Temporal Lobectomy

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E17. Multiple Subpial Transections

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E19. Hemispherectomy

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E21. Corpus Callosotomy

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E23. Vagal Nerve Stimulation (VNS)

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E25. RNS (Neuropace)

 

 

 

Ear. Otology

 

 

Basic Otology

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Ear12a. Hair cell function

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Ear21. Vestibular Physiology

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Ear23. Auditory Pathways

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Ear25. Auditory Physiology

 

Clinical Otology

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Ear30. Instrumental Auditory Examinations

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Ear32. Hearing Loss, Deafness

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Ear34. Tinnitus, Vertigo, Earache

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Ear36. Inner Ear Disorders

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Ear38. Middle Ear Disorders

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Ear40. External Ear Disorders

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Ear42. Temporal Bone Anomalies

 

 

 

Eye. Ophthalmology

 

 

Basic Ophthalmology

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Eye36a. Retinal Physiology

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Eye55. Eye Optics

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Eye57. Visual Pathways and Cortex

 

Clinical Ophthalmology

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Eye59. Ocular Symptoms and Signs

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Eye60. Instrumental Eye Examination

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Eye61. Drugs in Ophthalmology

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Eye62. Optic Nerve and Visual Pathways Disorders

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Eye63. Retinal Disorders

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Eye64. Gaze and Autonomic Innervation Disorders

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Eye65. Blindness, Amblyopia

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Eye66. Eyelid Disorders

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Eye68. Cataract

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Eye70. Glaucoma

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Eye72. Refractive Errors, Contact Lenses

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Eye74. Uveitis

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Eye76. Corneal Disorders

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Eye78. Conjunctival and Scleral Disorders

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Eye80. Vitreous Disorders

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Eye82. Lacrimal Disorders

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Eye84. Orbital Disorders

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Eye86. Eye Trauma

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Eye88. Red Eye

 

 

 

Inf. Infections

 

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Inf1. Infections of Nervous System (general)

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Inf3. Meningitis

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Inf5. Abscess, Empyema

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Inf7. Osteomyelitis (skull, spine)

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Inf9. Encephalitis

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Inf11. Parasitic Infections of Nervous System

 

 

 

Met. Metabolic Disorders

 

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Met1. Metabolic Myopathies

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Met5. Mitochondrial Disorders

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Met7. Degenerative CNS Diseases

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Met9. Hemorrhagic Shock and Encephalopathy Syndrome

 

 

 

Mov. Movement Disorders, Ataxias

 

 

General Aspects of Movement Disorders

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Mov1. Extrapyramidal Movement Disorders (general)

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Mov3. UMN (pyramidal) & LMN Disorders (general)

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Mov5. Cerebellar Disorders (general)

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Mov7. Gait Disorders, Falls, Immobility (general)

 

Hypokinetic Disorders

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Mov10. Hypokinetic Disorders 1 (parkinsonism)

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Mov11. Hypokinetic Disorders 2 (secondary parkinsonism)

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Mov12. Hypokinetic Disorders 3 (parkinsonism-plus)

 

Hyperkinetic Disorders

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Mov20. Hyperkinetic Disorders 1 (chorea)

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Mov21. Hyperkinetic Disorders 2 (dystonia)

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Mov22. Hyperkinetic Disorders 3 (tics, myoclonus, other)

 

Other

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Mov25. Drug-Induced Movement Disorders

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Mov50. Ataxias

 

 

 

Mus. Muscular, Neuromuscular Disorders

 

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Mus0. Neuromuscular Disorders (general)

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Mus1. Myasthenia Gravis

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Mus2. Other Neuromuscular Transmission Disorders

Congenital Myasthenias, Eaton-Lambert Syndrome

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Mus5. Muscular Dystrophies

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Mus7. Channelopathies

Myotonias, Periodic Paralysis

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Mus9. Congenital Myopathies, Congenital Muscle Anomalies

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Mus11. Rhabdomyolysis, Myoglobinuria, Toxic Myopathies

 

 

 

Onc. Oncology

 

 

General Aspects of Brain Tumors

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Onc1. Brain Tumors (general)

Etiology, Genetics, Epidemiology, Pathology, Pathophysiology, Classification, Clinical Features, Diagnosis

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Onc3. Brain Tumors (treatment)

Treatment Principles, Radiotherapy, Chemotherapy

 

Specific Brain Tumors

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Onc10. Astrocytomas

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Onc12. Oligodendrogliomas

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Onc14. Ependymomas

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Onc16. Choroid Plexus Tumors

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Onc18. Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors

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Onc20. Neuroblastic Tumors

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Onc22. Neuronal and Mixed Tumors

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Onc24. Vascular Tumors

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Onc26. Pituitary Tumors, Apoplexy, Empty Sella

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Onc28. Pineal Region Tumors

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Onc29. Germ Cell Tumors

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Onc30. Dermoid, Epidermoid, Cysts, Lipoma, Mucocele

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Onc32. Brain Metastases

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Onc34. Neoplastic Meningitis

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Onc36. CNS Lymphomas

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Onc38. Meningiomas

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Onc40. Skull Tumors

 

Spinal Tumors

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Onc42. Chordoma

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Onc50. Intramedullary Spinal Tumors

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Onc54. Intradural Extramedullary Spinal Tumors

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Onc56. Extradural Spinal Tumors, Vertebral Tumors

 

Nerve Tumors

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Onc60. Nerve Tumors (general)

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Onc62. Schwannomas of Cranial Nerves

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Onc64. Paragangliomas

 

Other

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Onc66. Neurological Paraneoplastic Syndromes

 

 

 

Op. Operative Techniques

 

 

CSF-related procedures

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Op3. Lumbar Puncture

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Op5. Other CSF Sampling Procedures

Cisternal (s. suboccipital) Puncture, Lateral Cervical Puncture, Ventricular Puncture

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Op6. External Ventricular Drainage, ICP Monitoring

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Op7. Spinal & Epidural Anesthesia

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Op9. CSF Access Implantable Devices

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Op10. CSF Shunting

 

General Aspects of Operative Neurousrgery

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Op30. Neuronavigation

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Op100. General Principles of Operative Neurosurgery

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Op120. General Principles of Perioperative Neurosurgery

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Op140. Surgical Instruments, Materials

 

Spine

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Op210. Cervical Spine Surgery (operative techniques)

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Op220. Thoracolumbosacral Spine Surgery (operative techniques)

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Op230. Syringomyelia (operative techniques)

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Op240. Cord Stimulators, Intrathecal Pumps (operative techniques)

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Op250. Cord and Spine Developmental Anomalies (operative techniques)

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Op260. Spinal Tumor Surgery (operative techniques)

 

Cranial

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Op300. Craniotomies

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Op305. Transsphenoidal Pituitary Resection

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Op310. Brain Biopsy

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Op320. Cranial Trauma procedures

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Op330. Cranioplasty

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Op340. Brain Tumors (operative techniques)

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Op345. Laser Ablation

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Op350. Cerebrovascular (open techniques)

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Op358. Temporal artery biopsy

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Op360. Surgery for Movement Disorders, DBS

 

Nerves - Peripheral, Cranial

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Op400. Cranial Nerves (techniques)

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Op450. Peripheral Nerves (techniques)

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Op460. Blockades of Peripheral Nerves

 

Non-neurosurgical (but used in neurosurgery)

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Op900. Tracheostomy, Coniotomy

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Op910. Vascular Access

 

 

 

Ped. Pediatrics

 

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Ped1. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

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Ped3. Child Maltreatment (abuse, neglect)

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Ped5. Developmental Delay (incl. Cerebral Palsy)

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Ped7. Differential Diagnosis of Pediatric Neurodisorders

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Ped9. Perinatal Period

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Ped11. Infancy, Childhood, Adolescence

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Ped13. Psychosocial Pediatrics

 

 

 

Pha. Phacomatoses (Neurocutaneous Disorders)

 

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Pha1. Phacomatoses (general)

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Pha3. Neurofibromatosis

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Pha5. Tuberous Sclerosis

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Pha7. Sturge-Weber syndrome

 

 

 

PN. Peripheral Neuropathies

 

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PN1. Peripheral Neuropathies (general)

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PN3. Hereditary Neuropathies

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PN5. Compressive Neuropathies

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PN7. Trauma of Peripheral Nerves

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PN9. Plexopathies

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PN11. Various Neuropathies

 

 

 

Psy. Psychiatry & Behavioral Science

 

 

General Aspects of Psychiatry

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Psy1. Behavioral Science Basics

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Psy3. Psychiatric Patient Examination

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Psy5. Psychiatry (general topics)

 

Psychiatric Disorders

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Psy9. Psychosis, Neuroleptics

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Psy11. Schizophrenia

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Psy13. Schizophrenia-like Disorders

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Psy15. Antidepressants, Mood Stabilizers

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Psy17. Mood (Affective) Disorders, Suicide

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Psy19. Sexual Disorders

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Psy21. Alcohol

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Psy23. Substance-related Disorders

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Psy25. Anxiety Disorders

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Psy27. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

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Psy29. Autistic Spectrum Disorders (s. Pervasive Developmental Disorders)

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Psy31. Learning Disabilities

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Psy33. Mental Retardation

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Psy35. Personality Disorders

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Psy37. Somatoform Disorders

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Psy39. Eating Disorders

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Psy41. Elimination (Toileting) Disorders

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Psy43. Disruptive Behavioral Disorders

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Psy45. Impulse Control Disorders

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Psy47. Dissociative Disorders

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Psy49. Violence

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Psy51. Uncertain Syndromes

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Gulf War Syndrome, Multiple Chemical Sensitivity

 

 

 

Rx. Treatment modalities

 

 

Medications

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Rx1. Benzodiazepines

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Rx2. Barbiturates

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Rx3. Other Sedatives-Anxiolytics

 

Radiotherapy

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Rx11. Radiotherapy for Neurodisorders

 

 

 

S. Symptoms, Signs, Syndromes

 

 

Language, Speech, Memory, Learning

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S1. Language, Speech

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S2. Language disorders

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S3. Speech disorders

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S5. Memory & Learning

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S6. Amnesias

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S8. Apraxia

 

Dementia, Delirium

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S10. Dementia (Chronic Organic Brain Syndrome)

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S11. Cortical Dementias (Alzheimer, Pick)

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S12. Other Dementias (Lewy body, Vascular)

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S15. Delirium (Acute Organic Brain Syndrome)

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S17. Various Encephalopathies

 

Sensory Disorders, Pain

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S20. Pain

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S21. Opioids

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S22. Sensory Disorders (sensory loss, paresthesias, dysesthesias)

 

Headache

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S24. Headache (general)

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S25. Migraine

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S26. Tension-Type Headache

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S27. Cluster Headache and Chronic Paroxysmal Hemicrania

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S28. Other Headaches

 

Consciousness

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S30. Alterations in Level of Consciousness, Coma

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S32. Vegetative State

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S34. Brain Death

 

Sleep Disorders

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S40. Sleep Disorders (general)

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S42. Insomnia

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S44. Excessive Daytime Somnolence

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S46. Parasomnias

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S48. Circadian Rhythm Disorders

 

ICP, Cerebral Edema, Hydrocephalus

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S50. Intracranial Hypertension (general)

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S52. Cerebral Edema

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S54. Brain Herniation

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S56. Pseudotumor Cerebri

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S58. Low Pressure Headache, Intracranial Hypotension

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S60. Hydrocephalus (general)

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S62. Normal-Pressure Hydrocephalus

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S64. CSF Leaks

 

Other

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S70. Intracranial Calcification

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S72. Neurosarcoidosis

 

 

 

Spin. Spinal Disorders

 

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Spin1. Spinal Syndromes (general)

Spinal Structures Affected In Various Disorders, Anatomic Spinal Syndromes, Spinal Complications, Prognosis, Rehabilitation

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Spin5. Syringomyelia

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Spin7. Transverse Myelopathy

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Spin11. Degenerative Disc Disease

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Spin13. Spondylosis

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Spin15. Spinal Stenosis

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Spin17. Spondylolysis, Spondylolisthesis

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Spin19. Back Pain, Neck Pain

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Spin21. UMN and LMN diseases

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

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Spin23. LMN diseases

Spinal Muscular Atrophies

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Spin25. UMN diseases

Familial Spastic Paraplegias, Primary Lateral Sclerosis

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Spin27. Other Spinal Disorders

Stiff-Person Syndrome, Epidural Lipomatosis, Lumbar Adhesive Arachnoiditis, Progressive Necrotizing Myelopathy

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Spin29. Scoliosis

 

 

 

Tr. Trauma

 

 

Head Trauma

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TrH1. Head Injury, Traumatic Brain Injury

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TrH5. Skull Fractures

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TrH9. Carotid-Cavernous Fistula

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TrH11. Epidural Hematoma

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TrH13. Subdural Hematoma

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TrH15. Subdural Hygroma

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TrH20. Head Injury (pediatric)

 

Facial Trauma

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TrH25. Facial Trauma (general)

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TrH27. Facial Trauma (frontal, orbital)

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TrH29. Facial Trauma (nasal, maxillary, zygomatic)

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TrH31. Facial Trauma (mandibular, dental)

 

Spinal Trauma

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TrS5. Vertebral Column Injury (general), Spinal Cord Injury

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TrS9. Vertebral Column Injury (specific injuries)

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TrS21. Anterior Neck Injury

 

 

 

Vas. Vascular Disorders

 

 

cerebral vascular disorders

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Vas1. Stroke (general)

Definitions, Classification

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Vas3. Ischemic Stroke

Etiology, Epidemiology, Pathology, Pathophysiology, Clinical Features, Diagnosis

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Vas5. Ischemic Stroke

Treatment, Prevention

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Vas7. Carotid Atherosclerotic Stenosis

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Vas9. Vertebrobasilar Ischemia

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Vas11. Vascular Dissection (carotid, vertebral)

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Vas13. Cerebral Venous Thrombosis

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Vas20. Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Intraventricular Hemorrhage

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Vas25. Aneurysms, SAH

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Vas30. Intracranial Vascular Malformations

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Vas35. Cerebral Vasculopathies

 

Spinal Vascular Disorders

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Vas40. Spinal Ischemic Stroke

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Vas42. Spinal Hemorrhages, Spinal Vascular Malformations

 

 

 

Veg. Autonomic (Vegetative) NS Disorders

 

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Veg1. Autonomic NS disorders (general)

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Veg3. Autonomic NS disorders (specific)

 

 

 

###. Other – Topics pertinent to Neurosurgery

 

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239 (11-14). Neurosyphilis

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240 (6a). Neuroborreliosis

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265 (1a). Reye syndrome

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265 (7a). Measles Encephalitides

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266. Slow Infections, Prion Diseases

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270. HIV, AIDS (neurologic aspects)

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738. Glycogenoses

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750. Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

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1349a. Hypertensive Encephalopathy

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1355. Coronary Artery Disease

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1356. Heart Failure

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1707a. Tumor Markers

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2201. Surgical Asepsis, Antisepsis

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2203. Surgical Infection

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2205. Wounds

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2207. Sutures

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2209. Surgical Needles, Surgical Tubes

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2210. Preoperative Period

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2211. Postoperative Period

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2215. Plastic Surgery

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2217. Pressure Sores

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2219. Burns

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2221. Cold Injury

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2229. Local Anesthetics

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2516. ADH disorders

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2590. Urinary Incontinence

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2590a. Neurogenic Bladder

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2738. Anterior Pituitary Disorders

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2751. Diabetic Neurology

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2777. Neurology of Heavy Metal Poisoning

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3901. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

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3905. Anesthesia, Pain management

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4800. Screening Tests (public health)

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4801. Rehabilitation

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Exam11. Examination Techniques - PEDIATRIC